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The edition consists of sev 
en hundred and fifty sets 
all numbered 


[From photograph of statue by Sig. Gaetano Trentanove ^of Florence, Italy), 
which represents Wisconsin in Statuary Hall in the Capitol at Washington.] 

The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents 







Secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 

Vol. LIX 


CLEVELAND. Cbe3Burrow03Bcotber0 




The Imperial Press, Cleveland 



Translators . 

Assistant Editor 
Bibliographical Adviser 









Relation de ce qui s est passe" 
.... en la Nouvelle-France, 
pendant les annees 1673 et 74. 
[Letters from the following mis 
sionaries, edited or synopsized 
by Claude Dablon:] Claude 
Jean Allouez, Louis Andre", Pierre 
Millet, Jean de Lamberville,Julien 
Gamier, Pierre Raffeix, Franqois 
de Cre pieul, and Louis Nicolas; 
n.p., n.d. [Second and final in 

Memoire pour un Millionaire qui 
ira aux 7 isles. Louis Nicolas; 
[La Prairie, 1673] 

Lettre au R. P. Pinette. Claude 
Dablon; Qu6bec, October 24, 

Le premier Voyage qu a fait Le 
P. Marquette vers le nouueau 
Mexique & Comment s en est 
form6 le defsein. Jacques Mar 
quette; [Baye des Puants, 1674] 

Journal incomplet, adresse au R. 
P. Claude Dablon, supe"rieur des 





Missions. Jacques Marquette; 
n.p., [1675] . 164 

Recit du second voyage et de la 
mort du P. Jacques Marquette. 
Claude Dablon; [Quebec, 1677] 184 

Etat present des Missions des 
peres de la Compagnie de Jsus 
en la Nouvelle-France, pendant 
1 ann^e 1675. Claude Dablon, 
[Quebec, 1675.] [First install 
ment.] . . . .213 
NOTES . . . -305 


I. Statue of Jacques Marquette, S.J., by Sig. 
Gaetano Trentanove, now in the Capitol 
at Washington . . . Frontispiece 

II. Facsimile, in colors, of Joliet s MS. map 

of 1674 .... Facing 86 

III. Photographic facsimile of Marquette s MS. 

map, accompanying his Journal, from 
the original in St. Mary s College 
archives, Montreal . . Facing 108 

IV. Photographic facsimile of map published 

by Thevenot, in 1681, purporting to be 
made by Marquette . . Facing \ 54 

V. Photographic facsimiles of the seven pages 
of Marquette s Journal, from the original 
MS. in St. Mary s College archives, 
Montreal . . . Facing 212 


Following is a synopsis of the documents contained 
in this volume : 

CX XXIII. The greater part of the Relation of 
1 673 -74 appeared in Vol. LVIII.; the remainder is 
herewith presented. This comprises only the report 
on the two Montagnais missions, at Tadoussac and 
the Seven Islands. The former of these is given in 
Crepieul s journal of his winter spent with the sav 
ages (October 4, 1673, to May 24, 1674) at Lake St. 
John. Departing from Quebec, he spends a week at 
the Jeremie islets, with a small band of Papinachois 
encamped there. At Chicoutimi, he finds two hun 
dred Indians awaiting him, to whom he ministers dur 
ing ten days. On November 2 , he departs with one of 
their bands, to accompany them in their winter wan 
derings. During the entire cold season, they rove 
about the neighborhood of Lake St. John, wherever a 
prospect of food attracts them ; and their wretched 
existence is shared by the brave missionary, who, 
with undaunted zeal and devotion, instructs them 
and celebrates the rites of the Church, whenever 
time or place permits these pious services. About 
the middle of January, he is so fortunate as to obtain 
news of Father Albanel, whom he visits, finding the 
latter temporarily disabled by an accident. In Feb 
ruary, the savages in the Lake St. John region are 
overcome with terror by an Iroquois raid. They 


hastily abandon their cabins, and gather in a rude 
fort for their defense. Ascertaining, however, that 
the enemy has gone in another direction, Cre"pieul 
goes to visit the Mistassinis, living near the lake of 
that name ; with them he remains six or seven weeks, 
and baptizes more than a hundred persons, including 
two chiefs. On May 6, a part of the band embark 
for Quebec, to implore Frontenac s aid against the 
Iroquois; and Cre"pieul goes with them. 

At the Seven Islands, far down the Labrador coast, 
Father Nicolas has held a sort of flying mission among 
the Oumamiois tribes of that region. He finds them 
friendly, and well disposed toward the faith; but 
his stay with them lasts only three days, for he and 
the French traders are compelled by an epidemic of 
scurvy to leave the islands. He promises, however, 
to return next year, and instruct the savages more 

CXXXIV. After his return to Quebec, Nicolas 
prepares a " memorandum for a missionary who will 
go to the Seven Islands. He informs his successor 
how many Indians he will find there, and of what 
tribes. He must understand the Montagnais lan 
guage, in order to talk with these savages. Nicolas 
mentions the scanty natural products of that desolate 
region, and advises that the French should establish 
fisheries there, which would be exceedingly profit 
able to them, and would enable a missionary to labor 
with the savages during the summer. He adds a list 
of the Indians who had been baptized in that tribe. 

CXXXV. This is a letter (dated October 24, 1674) 
from Dablon to the French provincial, giving a sur 
vey of the mission field at that time. Albanel, not 
withstanding the obstacles that he has encountered 


on the way, and the danger of losing his life if he 
goes on, has continued his journey to Hudson Bay, 
where the English have already established them 
selves. Marquette, since his discovery of the Mis 
sissippi, has been preparing to labor among the Illi 
nois. The other Fathers in the Ottawa missions 
have, during the year, " baptized more than five 
hundred infidels." In that region are now three 
permanent residences those at De Pere, St. Ignace, 
and Sault Ste. Marie. 

In Acadia, Pierron has spent part of the past year. 
During the winter, he travels in disguise through 
the English colonies, where he finds naught but 
desolation and abomination among the heretics, who 
will not even baptize the children, and still less the 
adults. He is able to baptize but few, on account 
of their obstinacy ; he has, however, the happi 
ness of preparing a heretic to make his abjuration." 
At Boston, Pierron is suspected of being a Jesuit, 
and is cited to appear before the General Court ; but 
he evades the summons. In Maryland he finds a 
few English Jesuits in disguise ; he desires to be sent 
to assist them, and to establish a mission among the 
Indians there; but Dablon considers this scheme, 
for many reasons, impracticable. 

The Iroquois missions are prosperous. The 
Mohawks " are being converted in greater numbers 
than ever ; but Bruyas s efforts are greatly hindered 
by the Dutch heretics. The Senecas are least in 
clined to embrace the faith; but the missionaries 
among them " fail not to win many victories over 
hell." Among the Montagnais, Crepieul is engaged 
in tireless labors, both summer and winter. The 
Iroquois colony at La Prairie, and that of the Hurons 


at Lorette, bring consolation to the missionaries, 
on account of their devotion and saintly living. The 
new church at Lorette, patterned after the Holy 
House of Loreto in Italy, is becoming a favorite 
resort for pilgrims from all parts of Canada. Dablon 
again extols the zeal and self-renunciation of all the 
apostles of the faith in New France. 

CXXXVI. One of the most valuable and impor 
tant documents in our series is the journal of Father 
Marquette, describing the voyage in which he and 
Joliet discovered and explored the Mississippi River. 
It is prefaced with a brief note by Dablon, which 
mentions Marquette s early desire to carry the gospel 
to the Southern tribes, and his opportunity for doing 
so when Joliet is chosen by Frontenac and Talon to 
explore the then unknown water-routes beyond Lake 
Michigan. Dablon also praises the fitness of Joliet 
for this undertaking. 

Marquette recounts the details of their voyage, 
which begins May 17, 1673, at the St. Ignace mis 
sion. They journey via Green Bay, visiting on the 
way the Menomonee Indians, who endeavor to dis 
suade them from their enterprise saying that there 
are ferocious tribes on the great river, some of whom 
are at war together, who will kill any stranger ; that 
horrible monsters and demons will endanger their 
lives, etc. 

Passing through the bay, and ascending the Fox 
River, they arrive at the Mascouten village June 7. 
Marquette describes at length two remarkable plants, 
the wild rice and snake-root. The Frenchmen at 
once call the elders, and ask them for guides on their 
way, which is readily granted. These savages con 
duct them to the Fox- Wisconsin portage, whence 


the travelers make their way alone. On June 17, 
they enter the Mississippi, with a Joy that I cannot 
express." Marque tte gives a minute description of 
the great river, the lands through which it passes., 
and the fauna of that region, most of which are 
strange and curious to the Canadians. Among these 
animals, he gives especial attention to the buffalo. 

The voyagers proceed more than sixty leagues 
without seeing any human being, until June 2 5 , when 
they discover a beaten path from the river inland. 
Marquette and Joliet follow this, and reach an Illinois 
village, the people of which receive them most hos 
pitably, and with elaborate ceremonies, which are 
fully described. A chapter is devoted to an account 
of their customs and usages. Marquette praises the 
gentleness and docility of the Illinois savages. They 
use guns, and carry on an extensive trade in slaves, 
whom they capture from more remote tribes. They 
raise abundant crops of Indian corn and other vege 
tables. The calumet, or ceremonial pipe, and the 
dance in honor of it, are fully described. One of 
these pipes is given to Marquette and his party, as a 
safeguard for their passage through the hostile 
nations farther down the river. 

After remaining several days with the friendly 
Illinois savages, the explorers resume their voyage. 
They find new and curious plants, and agreeable 
fruits. Near Alton, Illinois, they see on the smooth 
face of a bluff paintings of strange monsters, so 
frightful in appearance that " the boldest savages 
dare not Long rest their eyes " upon them. Shortly 
after passing these grotesque figures, they narrowly 
escape being wrecked in the swollen and turbid flood 
poured forth at the mouth of the Missouri River. 


The reports which they have already heard from the 
savages regarding this stream lead them to hope that, 
by ascending it far enough, they may gain other 
rivers which will furnish the long-sought passage to 
the Western Sea. Near the mouth of the Ohio, they 
find rich deposits of iron ore. They now begin to 
experience the torment of mosquitoes. 

Somewhat farther down, they encounter a band of 
savages, who at first appear to be hostile; they 
prove, however, to be as frightened as we were, 
and soon become pacified. Again, at the mouth of 
St. Francis River, they are in danger of losing their 
lives, being attacked by the Mitchigameas, who 
dwell there. In this emergency, they are saved by 
displaying the calumet which the Illinois gave them. 
On the next day they proceed to the mouth of the 
Arkansas, where another tribe dwells. These sav 
ages are friendly, and warn them that they cannot 
go farther without great danger. 

At this point, Marquette and Joliet take counsel 
together as to their next proceeding. They are now 
well satisfied that the great river, on which they have 
voyaged more than a thousand miles, flows into 
the Gulf of Mexico. If they advance, they are in 
danger of imprisonment, and perhaps death, thus 
risking the loss of all that they have gained from 
their long and perilous journey. Accordingly, they 
begin (July 1 7) their return voyage ; but this time 
they ascend the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers, and 
enter Lake Michigan by the Chicago River. They 
stop on the way to visit a Kaskaskia band, who desire 
Marquette to come again to instruct them ; also the 
Peorias, where he baptizes a dying child, which 
alone repays the missionary for his long and 


toilsome journey. At the close of September, they 
reach the De Pere mission. 

CXXXVII. This is Marquette s (unfinished) 
journal of his second voyage to the Illinois tribes a 
journey with pathetic ending, for he dies on the way, 
while striving to reach Mackinac. Departing from 
De Pere October 25, 1674, accompanied by two 
Frenchmen, he enters the waters of Lake Michigan 
via the portage at Sturgeon Bay. There they for 
tunately meet a party of Illinois Indians, who desire 
the Father to go under their escort. Now begins a 
long and tedious voyage, so interrupted by storms and 
severe cold that it is not until December 4 that the 
party reach Chicago River. The Father is again ill, 
on account of his privations and hardships, and finds 
himself unable to proceed farther. Accordingly, 
Marquette and his two Frenchmen spend the winter 
at the portage, alone, except for occasional visits 
from the savages. Early in January, a French trader 
in that region hears of the Father s illness, and sends 
him food by a surgeon who is with him. The Illi 
nois savages, among whom he had intended to carry 
on a mission, also bring him gifts, and beg him to 
come and dwell with them. 

In February, Marquette s health begins to im 
prove, owing to his devotions to the Virgin. The 
last week in March brings a south wind, and the 
river opens; a sudden freshet nearly carries away 
the Frenchmen and their goods. This gives them, 
after various delays, an opportunity to resume their 
journey ; but it is not until April 8 that they reach 
the Illinois village. Marquette s journal ends upon 
the 6th, while he and his men are awaiting favorable 
weather to descend the Des Plaines River. 


CXXXVIII. In this document, Dablon briefly 
relates this second voyage of Marquette, adding 
details of his death, and of the removal (1677) of his 
bones to Mackinac. After reaching the Illinois 
village, the Father holds (three days before Easter) 
a great council, where over 1,500 men are present, 
besides the women and children. He explains to 
them the mysteries of the faith, and celebrates mass ; 
and on Easter Sunday holds similar services. The 
savages listen with delight, and would gladly retain 
him among them ; but his malady is so increasing 
that he is compelled to depart. He sets out for 
Mackinac, hoping to reach the mission-house there 
in time to die within its walls ; but his strength fails 
so rapidly that he is obliged to land near Ludington, 
Michigan, where he dies on the same day (May 18, 
1675). His faithful companions there inter his body, 
which is removed two years later, by some of his 
Ottawa disciples, to the St. Ignace mission at Macki 
nac. There it is reinterred, with all the solemnity 
possible ; and this tomb becomes a favorite resort for 
the Christian savages. The document closes with 
a brief summary of his virtues," prominent among 
which are his zeal and meekness, and his devotion 
to the Virgin. 

CXXXIX. For the year 1675, Dablon sends to 
his provincial an account of " the present condition 
of the missions in New France." It begins with a 
brief survey of the Ottawa mission, followed by the 
account of Marquette s last voyage and death which 
we present in Doc. CXXXVIII. 

At Sault Ste. Marie, with its dependent missions 
on the islands and northern shore of Lake Huron, 
over one hundred and twenty persons have been 


baptized, notwithstanding all the opposition that the 
devil raises up against the Gospel by various super 
stitions " to oppose which the missionaries have 
more than once risked their lives. At St. Ignace 
(Marquette s post), the new chapel built last year 
was, at its opening, " consecrated by sixty-six 
baptisms," administered to Hurons and Algonkins 
who have settled there. At De Pere, Andre has, by 
mingled patience and firmness, conquered the minds, 
" most ferocious and superstitious," of the savages 
in that region. He has formed " a church of four or 
five hundred Christians ; and has baptized a hundred 
and forty persons during the past year. Among the 
Central Wisconsin tribes, Allouez has baptized a 
hundred and sixty. The Mascouten village has been 
increased, by refugees from many tribes, to a popu 
lation of 20,000 souls a parish too large for Allouez, 
who is now aided by Silvy. Letters from the former 
give some account of his work there. As usual, the 
great obstacle in the way of the missionaries is the 
blind adherence of the savages to their superstitions, 
especially where dreams are concerned. 

A short report is given from each of the Iroquois 
missions. Bruyas, superior of all these, writes from 
Agnie" that he has baptized eighty persons there. 
His labors have received much aid from the conver 
sion of Assendasse, a notable Mohawk chief, and 
from a gift, made to the church of Agnie, of a 
miraculous image, that of Our Lady of Foye. The 
Oneidas, most cruel of all the Iroquois, " are now 
so changed through Father Millet s care that it may 
be said that from wolves they have become lambs." 
Several prominent chiefs here also have been con 
verted. At Onondaga, also, the church is flourish- 


ing. Lamberville has gained much influence among 
the savages by his ability in using medicines for the 
cure of sicknesses. Carheil has not been so fortunate 
at Cayuga ; the arrogance of those savages is great, 
and they insult and abuse him when, as often hap 
pens, they become intoxicated. The Senecas also 
are intolerably insolent since they defeated the An- 
dastes ; they talk of going to war against the French ; 
and the three missionaries who labor among them 
are in almost continual danger of being murdered 
by those barbarians." 

As for the missions at the North, no word has 
been received from Albanel since he set out, two 
years ago, for Hudson Bay. Vague Indian reports 
indicate that he has either been killed, or captured 
by the English and sent back to Europe. Cre"pieul, 
his health broken by continual exposure, has been 
recalled to Quebec for rest, and Boucher takes his 

A noble record is made by the Iroquois colonists 
at La Prairie ; although surrounded on all sides by 
the most scandalous drunkenness," they are distin 
guished among their neighbors as " those who do 
not drink, and who pray to God aright." Their 
virtue is illustrated by an account of the pious death 
of a young man named Skandegorhaksen. Dablon 
gives an interesting account of visits made to La 
Prairie by Bishop Laval, and later, by the new in- 
tendant, Duchesneau. These distinguished guests 
are welcomed by the savages in their own fashion, 
with every mark of honor. During the bishop s 
visit, a rumor comes that a hunting-party of promi 
nent men from La Prairie have been attacked and 
slain by enemies. These good Christians nobly put 


aside their private griefs, that they may duly honor 
the visit of the head of the Canadian church ; and 
thus " the whole stratagem which the devil seemed 
to have invented solely to disturb the minds of 
the savages, and to prevent the good results of 
Monseigneur s visit, served but to make the virtues 
of our new Christians shine more brightly." 

Duchesneau, the intendant, also visits the La 
Prairie colony, accompanied by many officials and 
prominent habitants. He lights the bonfire on St. 
John s day, holds a general council with the savages, 
and provides them with a bountiful feast. 

R. G. T. 

MADISON, Wis., November, 1899. 

CXXXI1I (concluded) 

RELATION OF 1673-74 

The greater part of this document appeared in Volume 
LVIII. ; its concluding section is herewith presented. 


Missions des Montagnais ou Algonquins Inferi- 
eurs pendant les annees 1673 et 1674. 



LE P. Francis de Crepieul, qui a la charge de 
cette Mission, temoigne recevoir ton jours beau- 
coup de satisfaction de la conduite de ses 
chre tiens. Les fatigues qu il a endurees en les 
accompagnant dans les bois pendant tout rhiver ne 
se peuvent concevoir que par ceux qui les ont eprou- 
v6es. Apres tout, elles sont bien douces, lorsqu on 
les souffre pour aller a la recherche de pauvres brebis 
6garees, que le Fils de Dieu est venu chercher lui- 
meme. Cette petite Eglise de Tadoussac a et 
augmente e, cette anne"e, de plusieurs adultes et de 
vingt-deux enfants, qui ont recu la grace du bap- 
teme. Nous donnons ici le journal du voyage et des 
travaux du P. de Crepieul chez les Papinachois, les 
Mistassins, etc., tel qu il nous 1 a envoye". 


LE 23 septembre 1673, apres soixante-dix ou quatre- 
vingts lieues faites en canot, et apres avoir 
couru divers perils et essuy6 plusieurs f acheux temps 
dans une saison assez incommode, couchant sur le 
sable ou sur quelque rocher, j arrival k Quebec, d ou 
quelques jours apres je m embarquai pour aller aux 
Papinachois, de Ik a Chegoutimi, et ensuite au lac 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1673-74 2-> 

Missions of the Montagnais or Lower Algonquins 
during the years 1673 and 1674. 



FATHER Franois de Crepieul, who has charge 
of this Mission, states that he continues to 
derive much satisfaction from the conduct of 
his Christians. The fatigues which he has endured 
while accompanying them in the woods during the 
whole winter can be imagined only by those who 
have experienced them. After all, they are very 
sweet when one suffers them in searching for poor 
wandering sheep, whom the Son of God came 
himself to seek. This small Church of Tadous- 
sac was increased this year by several adults and 
twenty-two children, who received the grace of bap 
tism. We present here the journal of Father de 
Cr6pieul s journey and labors among the Papinachois, 
the Mistassins, and other tribes, as he has sent it 
to us. 



N the 23rd of September, 1673, after journeying 
seventy or eighty leagues in a canoe, and 
having encountered various dangers and endured 
much bad weather in a rather inclement season, 
sleeping in the sand or on a rock, I reached Quebec. 
Thence I set out, a few days afterward, to go to the 


Saint-Jean, ou je devais passer un troisieme hiver 
avec une bande de Sauvages. 

Des le jour du depart, le 4 octobre, je commengai 
ma mission par le bapteme d un enfant Etchemin 
age" de deux ans. Nous fumes ensuite surpris d un 
vent impetueux qui nous mit en danger, et, rompant 
un des cables de la barque, nous obligea de relacher. 
Trois jours apres, un vent fort favorable nous poussa 
bien avant dans notre route et nous fit aborder, au 
bout de deux jours, aux ilets de Jeremie, oh je trou- 
vai cinq cabanes de Papinachois qui nous attendaient 
et que j instruisis pendant six ou sept jours. 

Le 2 1 octobre, nous levames 1 ancre avec un vent 
assez favorable et nous primes notre route vers le 
Saguenay ; mais etant surpris de la nuit, et le vent 
venant a se grossir, nous fumes en danger de nous 
perdre, la barque etant extraordinairement agite"e 
et se remplissant d eau. Ce fut meme une mer- 
veille comment nous n e"chouames point; car le 
vent nous avait pousse" avec tant de violence, quoique 
nous n eussions point de voile, que vers minuit nous 
nous trouvames pres de terre. Cette tempete dura 
dix heures entieres, pendant lesquelles nous croy- 
ions a chaque moment devoir faire naufrage ; mais 
enfin Dieu nous rendit le calme et nous fit arriver a 
Chegoutimi. J y trouvai deux cents Sauvages qui 
m attendaient; je leur fis des instructions pendant 
dix jours, confessant et communiant ceux que 1 age 
rendait capables de ces sacrements. J enterrai aussi 
le fils du chef de Tadoussac, qui montra en ses der- 
niers moments une resignation vraiment chretienne. 

Le dernier jour d octobre, je baptisai un enfant et 
donnai Vextreme-onction a une moribonde tres-bien 
disposee au grand voyage de I e ternite . Nous 

1 673 - 77] RELA TION Of 1673 - 74 27 

Papinachois, thence to Chegoutimi, and afterward 
to lake St. John, where I was to pass a third winter 
with a band of Savages. 

On the day of my departure, the 4th of October, I 
began my mission by baptizing an Etchemin child 
two years old. We were afterward surprised by a 
violent gale which endangered our lives, and, by 
breaking one of the cables of our bark, compelled us 
to put back. Three days afterward, a very favorable 
wind carried us a long distance on our voyage, and 
brought us at the end of two days to the Jere"mie 
islets. 1 There I found five cabins of Papinachois, 
who awaited us, and I instructed them for six or 
seven days. 

On the 2ist of October, we weighed anchor with a 
very favorable wind, and sailed in the direction of 
the Saguenay; but, being surprised by darkness, 
and the wind rising, we were in danger of ship 
wreck; for the bark was greatly tossed about, and 
filled with water. It was even a marvel that we did 
not run aground; for the wind impelled us so 
violently, although we had no sail set, that about 
midnight we were close to the land. This storm 
lasted ten whole hours, during which we expected 
to be wrecked at any moment. But at last God gave 
us calm weather again, and enabled us to reach 
Chegoutimi. 8 I found there two hundred Savages 
waiting for me; I instructed them for ten days, 
confessing and administering communion to those 
who were old enough to receive those sacraments. 
I also buried the son of the chief of Tadoussac, who 
in his last moments displayed truly Christian resigna 

On the last day of October, I baptized a child, 


passamesle lendemain, jour dela Toussaint, dans les 
exercices de devotion que demandait une si grande 
fete; presque tous les Fran9ais et les Sauvages se 
confesserent et communierent. En outre, je donnai 
le viatique a deux malades et le bapteme a un enfant. 
Les chefs de Tadoussac et de Sillery firent de belles 
harangues, en faveur de la Priere, k 1 occasion du 
festin d adieu que leur offrirent les Frangais qui de- 
vaient partir le lendemain. En effet, le 2 novembre r 
apres avoir rendu nos devoirs aux ames du purga- 
toire, la barque fit voile vers Quebec et me laissa 
seul avec mes chers Sauvages, qui se disposerent a 
aller hiverner chacun de leur cote". Sur le soir, je 
partis accompagn6 de six canots de Sauvages, avec 
lesquels j allai coucher vers le rapide de la grande 
riviere qui descend du lac Saint-Jean et se rend dans 
la belle riviere du Saguenay. Le lendemain, nous 
fumes obliges de porter notre canot et tout ce que 
nous avions avec nous pendant deux lieues, avec 
beaucoup de fatigue, marchant tantot dans la boue 
et tantot dans les neiges. Pendant que nous mar- 
chions, je remarquai de funestes traces du grand 
tremblement de terre de 1663; je fis aussi rencontre 
de quatre families d Outabitibecs que j instruisis. 
Au bout de notre chemin, je trouvai un gros rapide 
et la belle riviere des Papinachois. Deux jours 
apres, ces quatre families que nous avons rencontrees 
se joignirent k nous, et, tous ensemble, nous entrames 
dans le bois pour y chercher notre vie, et pour aller 
au^devant d une grande quantite de Sauvages qui 
devaient descendre, le printemps. 

Apres avoir heureusement traverse" sept rapides,. 
les glaces commencerent & nous boucher le pas 
sage, ce qui nous obligea de nous arreter sur une 

1673-77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 29 

and administered extreme unction to a dying woman, 
who was very well prepared for the great journey of 
eternity. We spent the following day, the feast of 
All Saints, in the devotional exercises which so im 
portant a feast required ; nearly all the French and 
Savages confessed and received communion. More 
over, I gave the viaticum to two sick persons, and 
baptized a child. The chiefs of Tadoussac and Sil- 
lery delivered eloquent harangues in favor of Prayer, 
on the occasion of the farewell feast given them by 
the French, who were to leave on the following day. 
In fact, on the 2nd of November, after performing 
our duties for the souls in purgatory, the bark set 
sail for Quebec, and left me alone with my beloved 
Savages, who prepared to go to their winter quarters, 
each band to their own district. In the evening, I 
started in company with six canoes of Savages, with 
whom I spent the night near the rapid of the large 
river that flows from lake St. John, and falls into 
the noble Saguenay river. On the following day, 
we were obliged to carry our canoe and all our effects 
for two leagues, with much fatigue walking some 
times in mud, and sometimes in snow. While we 
were marching, I observed the disastrous effects of 
the great earthquake of 1663.* I also met four fami 
lies of Outabitibecs, whom I instructed. At the 
end of our road I came upon a great rapid, and the 
fine river of the Papinachois. 4 Two days afterward, 
these four families whom we had met joined us ; and 
all together we entered the woods, to seek our liveli 
hood, and to meet a great number of Savages who 
were to come down in the spring. 

After successfully passing seven rapids, the ice 
began to block our way, and this compelled us to 


montagne. Nous construisimes deux cabanes, compo- 
se"es de trente-quatre personnes, que j instruisais tous 
les jours en attendant que les neiges fussent assez 
e"paisses pour qu on put aller en raquettes. II faut 
avouer que si la vie d un missionnaire est pe"nible, 
elle est aussi remplie de bien des consolations. Ce 
n en e"tait pas une peu sensible pour moi de voir tous 
les jours mes instructions recherche"es, e coute es et 
suivies avec une ferveur incroyable par les plus petits 
comme par les plus grands. En souvenir de notre 
passage, jeplantaiune croix dans cette vaste solitude. 

Le 19 novembre, nous allames cabaner k une 
grande lieue de la, en un endroit oii la chasse e"tait 
bonne, mais oii le manque d eau car la neige fondue 
n 6tanche presque pas la soif et oii la fume e, qui 
e"tait fort incommode, nous donna grande matiere a 
patience. Nous ne sortimes de ce lieu que le 6 
de"cembre, parce que les premiers froids furent plus 
tardifs qu k 1 ordinaire. Nous avons ce le bre la fete 
de saint Frangois-Xavier et ensuite celle de rimma- 
cule"e Conception avec toute la deVotion possible, nous 
occupant, pendant ces jours et pendant leur octave, 
chanter des cantiques spirituels en langue sauvage. 
Ce fut vers ce u temps qu il arriva pres de nous un 
assez grand tremblement de terre. J eus encore 
occasion, pendant notre marche, d observer les 
e"tranges ravages de 1 epouvantable tremblement de 
terre qui eut lieu, il y a quelques anne"es, en ces 
contrees sauvages. On y remarque aussi les traces 
re"centes que de cruels incendies ont laisse es dans ces 
vastes forets. Les Sauvages disent qu ils se sont 
tendus jusqu k plus de deux cents lieues. 

Le 15, je baptisai une petite fille qu on nomma 

J 673 - 77] R EL A TION OF 1673 - 74 31 

stop upon a mountain. We built two cabins, to 
contain thirty-four persons ; I instructed them daily, 
while waiting until the snow was deep enough to 
allow us to walk on snowshoes. It must be admitted 
that, if a missionary s life be a painful one it is also 
full of many consolations. It was no small pleasure 
to me to see, every day, my instructions sought after, 
listened to, and followed with incredible fervor by 
the youngest as well as by the older persons. In 
remembrance of our passage here, I erected a cross 
in this vast solitude. 

On the iQth of November, we went a long league 
thence, to encamp in a place where game is plenti 
ful; but there the want of water, for melted snow 
hardly quenches thirst, and the smoke, which was 
very annoying, greatly tried our patience. We did 
not leave this place until the 6th of December, 
because the first frosts were later than usual. We 
celebrated the feast of saint Francis Xavier, and after 
ward that of the Immaculate Conception, with all 
possible devotion, occupying ourselves on those 
days and during their octave with chanting hymns 
in the savage tongue. About this time there was 
a very noticeable earthquake near us. I had still 
further opportunity, during our journey, to observe 
the extraordinary ravages of the terrible earthquake 
that took place some years ago in these wild regions. 
There may also be seen the recent traces which cruel 
fires have left in these vast forests. The Savages 
say that they have spread over more than two 
hundred leagues. 

On the 1 5th, I baptized a little girl, who was named 

On the 1 8th, we journeyed through a fine level 


Le 1 8, nous marchames dans un beau pays plat, 
entrecoupe de rivieres et de lacs; nous y choisimes 
un endroit pour dresser notre cabane. Nous y fumes 
si persecutes de la fume e que tres-souvent j etais si 
persecutes de la fum^e que tres-souvent j 6tais 
oblige, pour 1 eViter, de m exposer k la rigueur d un 
vent froid et glacial. Les vents furent si violents 
pendant sept ou huit jours que nous craignions & tous 
moments qu ils n emportassent notre cabane faite 
<Te*corce, ou qu ils ne renversassent des arbres qui 
nous auraient ^erases dans leur chute. 

Je fus ravi de voir une pauvre fille trainer sa mere 
sur les neiges, 1 espace de trois ou quatre grandes 
lieues, pour avoir la consolation d etre aupres de 
nous, et de participer aux prieres et aux instructions 
que nous faisions tous les jours. Je confessai et 
communiai cette pauvre malade selon son desir. Elle 
croyait mourir bientot, mais Dieu la conserva pour 
exercer sa patience et celle de sa pauvre fille. 

On me raconta en cet endroit une action gen6reuse 
qu avait faite un de nos Chretiens, 1 ete passe. II 
.avait etc" invite & un festin superstitieux sans savoir 
qu il le fut; mais, de bonnes chretiennes 1 en ayant 
averti au moment ou il s y rendait, il rebroussa 
chemin, et revint en sa cabane. On eut beau lui dire 
qu il n y avait rien a craindre, puisque la Robe noire, 
qui pourrait le trouver mauvais, n y etait pas. Ce 
n est pas elle, dit-il, que je crains, mais uniquement 
Celui qui a tout fait, dont les Robes noires ne sont que 
les interpretes. Sa r6ponse edifia singulierement 
les uns et donna beaucoup de confusion aux autres 
<jui ne tarderent pas k se repentir de leur faiblesse. 

Nous passames la nuit et la fete de Noel dans notre 
pauvre cabane d ecorce: etnous la celebrames, sinon 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1673-74 38 

country, intersected by rivers and lakes, and chose a 
spot for erecting our cabin. We were so harassed 
by the smoke that, in order to escape from it, I was 
very often obliged to expose myself to a cold and 
freezing wind. The wind blew so violently for 
seven or eight days that we feared it might at any 
moment carry away our bark cabin, or uproot trees 
which would have crushed us in their fall. 

I was delighted to see a poor girl drag her mother 
over the snow for a distance of three or four long 
leagues, to have the consolation of being near us, 
and of participating in the prayers that we said and 
the daily instructions that we gave. I confessed and 
administered communion to this poor sick woman at 
her request. She thought she would soon die but 
God preserved her to exercise her patience and that 
of her poor daughter. 

I was told, at this place, of a noble action performed 
by one of our Christians last summer. He had been 
invited to a superstitious feast, without knowing that 
it was so. But some good Christian women informed 
him of it, just as he was about to proceed thither; 
so he retraced his steps, and returned to his cabin. 
In vain was he told that there was nothing to fear, 
since the black Gown, who might deem it wrong, 
was away. "It is not he whom I fear," he said; 
" I dread only Him who has made all, and of whom 
the black Gowns are only the interpreters." His 
answer greatly edified some, and shamed the others, 
who soon repented of their weakness. 

We passed the night and festival of Christmas in 
our wretched bark cabin; and we celebrated the 
feast, if not with splendor, at least with great 


avec magnificence, du moins avec de grands te"moi- 
gnages d amour et de deVotion envers 1 adorable 
mystere du Dieu fait enfant, dont nous honorions la 

Le 4 Janvier 1674 nous partimes de ce lieu, apres 
y avoir laisse" une belle croix, pour en aller planter 
une dans un autre endroit oh nous arrivames bien 
fatigues. Nous y eumes beaucoup k souffrir & cause 
des mauvais temps, des froids et de la fume e presque 

Le 13 Janvier, quelques Sauvages arriverent et 
nous apprirent en quel endroit se trouvait le P. Alba- 
nel qui 6tait en route pour la baie du Nord. Je 
voulus aller le voir, et en meme temps instruire 
quelques Sauvages qui n e*taient pas e loigne s de lui, 
et aupres desquels un mal qui lui e"tait survenu 
I empechait de se rendre. 

Ainsi, le 16 Janvier, je me mis en chemin avec un 
capitaine algonquin et deux Fran9ais. Nous par- 
times apres la messe, et nous fimes cinq grandes 
lieues en raquettes, avec beaucoup d incommodite, 
parce que la neige etant molle, elle rendait nos 
raquettes extremement pesantes. Au bout de cinq 
lieues, nous nous trouvames sur un lac de quatre a 
cinq lieues, tout glace, ou le vent faisait voler grande 
quantite de neige qui obscurcissait 1 air et nous em- 
pechait de voir ou nous marchions. Apres avoir fait 
une autre lieue et demie, avec bien de la peine, les 
forces commen9aient & nous manquer. Le vent, le 
froid et la neige 6taient si intolerables qu ils nous 
obligerent a retourner un peu sur nos pas pour cou- 
per quelques branches de sapin qui pussent, k de"faut 
d ecorce, nous servir a construire une cabane. 
Ensuite, nous voulumes faire du feu, mais il nous 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 

manifestations of love and devotion for the adorable 
mystery of the God-child whose birth we honored. 

On the 4th of January, 1674, we started from this 
place, after leaving a fine cross there to go and erect 
one in another place, where we arrived greatly 
fatigued. We had much to suffer from almost 
continual bad weather, cold, and smoke. 

On the 1 3th of January, some Savages arrived, and 
informed us where I could find Father Albanel, who 
was on his way to the Northern bay. I wished to 
go and see him, and, at the same time, to instruct 
some Savages who were not far from him, and whom 
he was prevented from reaching by an accident that 
had happened to him. 

I set out, therefore, on the i6th of January, with 
an Algonquin captain and two Frenchmen. We 
started after mass, and walked five long leagues on 
snowshoes with much trouble, because the snow 
was soft and made our snowshoes very heavy. At 
the end of five leagues, we found ourselves on a lake 
four or five leagues long, all frozen over, on which 
the wind caused great quantities of snow to drift, 
obscuring the air, and preventing us from seeing 
whither we were going. After walking another 
league and a half, with great difficulty, our strength 
began to fail us. The wind, cold, and snow were 
so intolerable that they compelled us to retrace 
our steps a little, to cut some branches of fir which 
might, in default of bark, serve to build a cabin. 
After this, we tried to light a fire, but were unable 
to do so. We were thus reduced to a most pitiful 
condition. The cold was beginning to seize us to an 
extraordinary degree, the darkness was great, and 
the wind blew fearfully. In order, therefore, to keep 


fut impossible de 1 allumer. Nous e"tions ainsi 
reduits au plus pitoyable e"tat. Le froid commen9ait 
a nous saisir d une Strange maniere, la nuit etait pro- 
fonde et le vent soufflait horriblement. Ainsi, pour 
ne pas nous laisser mourir de froid, nous nous 
remimes, malgre" notre faiblesse, a marcher sur le lac 
pendant robscurite" de la nuit, sans savoir ou nous 
allions. Nous e"tions d ailleurs toujours tres-incom- 
mods du vent et de la neige ; mais, apres une lieue et 
demie du chemin, il fallut succomber malgre" nous, 
et nous arreter k 1 endroit oil nous nous trouvions. 
Le danger ou nous etions de mourir de froid me fit 
souvenir du charitable Pere de Noue qui, dans une 
pareille rencontre, fut trouve" mort sur la neige, & 
genoux et les mains jointes. Cette pense"e me 
ranima; je fis a Dieu le sacrifice de ma vie, et j unis 
ma mort, que je croyais etre proche, a celle de ce 
pieux missionnaire. Les Fran9ais avec qui nous 
etions, abattirent quelques branches de sapin qu ils 
mirent sur la neige, et sur lesquelles nous nous 
jetames, apres avoir fait nos prieres, et pris, pour 
tout repas, un peu de theriaque et sept a huit grains 
de raisin sec que nous trouvames par hasard sur 
nous. La lassitude nous faisait tomber dans le som- 
meil que le vent, le froid et la neige ne nous permet- 
taient pas de gouter longtemps. Nous veillames 
ainsi tout le reste de la nuit. La Providence cepen- 
dant nous a pre serve s de plus graves accidents, et 
nous le devons sans doute a 1 intercession de la sainte 
Vierge h qui nous nous etions particulierement 
recommande s. Le lendemain matin, deux Franais 
de la cabane du P. Albanel arriverent bien propos, 
et allumerent un grand feu sur la neige. Un d eux 
alia chercher de 1 eau pour etancher notre soif qui 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 37 

ourselves from dying with cold, we resumed our 
march on the lake, in spite of our fatigue, in the 
obscurity of the night, without knowing whither we 
were going. We were, moreover, always greatly 
impeded by the wind and snow; but, after walk 
ing a league and a half, we had to succumb, in spite 
of ourselves, and stop where we were. The danger 
we ran of dying from cold caused me to remember 
the charitable Father de Noue, who on a similar 
occasion was found dead in the snow, kneeling and 
with clasped hands. This thought roused me ; I made 
a sacrifice of my life to God, and united my death, 
which I believed to be near, to that of the pious 
missionary. The French who were with us, cut 
some fir-branches, which they laid on the snow ; and 
we threw ourselves down on them, after saying our 
prayers and taking, for all repast, a little theriac and 
seven or eight raisins, that we happened to have with 
us. Fatigue caused us to fall into a slumber, which 
the wind, the cold, and the snow did not allow us 
long to enjoy ; we therefore remained awake during 
the rest of the night. Providence, however, pre 
served us from more serious accidents, and we are 
no doubt indebted for this to the intercession of the 
blessed Virgin, to whom we had particularly com 
mended ourselves. On the following morning, two 
Frenchmen from Father Albanel s cabin arrived, 
very opportunely, and kindled a great fire on the 
snow. One of them went for some water, to quench 
our excessive thirst. Then we resumed our journey 
on the same lake, and at last, in spite of the wind 
and snow drifting in our faces, we reached the spot 
where Father Albanel was. I found with him four 
of Savages, whom I instructed. A serious 


tait excessive. Puis, nous nous remimes en chemin 
sur le meme lac; et enfin, malgr6 le vent et la neige, 
qui nous donnaient dans le visage, nous arrivames a 
1 endroit ou etait le P. Albanel. Je trouvai avec lui 
quatre cabanes de Sauvages que j instruisis. Une 
blessure grave, occasionnee par la chute d un pesant 
fardeau qui lui 6tait tomb6 sur les reins, ne lui per- 
mettait pas de se remuer, et encore moins de faire 
les fonctions de missionnaire. 

Deux jours apres, je retournai a ma cabane, qui 
etait environ a dix lieues de la. J y administrai les 
derniers sacrements a une femme malade, qui me les 
demanda avec instance, et te moigna mourir fort con- 
tente. Cette bonne Sauvage faisait paraitre de 
grands sentiments d amour envers Dieu et de deVo- 
tion et confiance envers la Sainte Vierge. Je me 
rendis ensuite a deux cabanes de Sauvages Outabiti- 
becs, qui 6taient environ a quatre lieues de distance, 
et je leur expliquai les verite s du salut. II n est pas 
concevable avec quelle avidit ils 6couterent mes 
instructions, et quelle deVotion ils apporterent au 
sacrement de penitence et a la communion. 

Apres etre demeur deux jours avec eux, je retour 
nai k ma cabane, pour me disposer au voyage que je 
devais entreprendre chez les Mistassins et chez les 

Le 2 feVrier, je rencontrai encore une fois le P. 

Le 6, je le quittai, et j allai avec les Sauvages qui 
m accompagnaient me loger aupres d une tres-belle 
riviere oh nous fumes quelques jours en paix, jusqu a 
ce que le P. Albanel m envoya un Fran9ais pour 
m avertir que l 6pouvante 6tait partout, qu on croyait 
que les Iroquois e"taient en marche et qu ils avaient 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1673-74. 39 

injury, caused by the fall of a heavy load upon his 
loins, prevented him from moving, and still more 
from performing a missionary s duties. 

Two days afterward I returned to my own cabin, 
about ten leagues from there. I administered the 
last sacraments to a sick woman, who begged me to 
do so, and who said that she died very happy. This 
good Savage woman manifested deep sentiments of 
love for God, and of devotion for and confidence in 
the Blessed Virgin. I then proceeded to two cabins 
of Outabitibec Savages, at a distance of about four 
leagues ; and I explained the truths of salvation to 
them. It is impossible to conceive the avidity with 
which they listened to my instructions, and the 
devotion that they manifested for the sacraments of 
penance and communion. 

After remaining two days with them, I returned 
to my cabin to prepare for the journey that I was to 
undertake to the Mistassins and Papinachois. 

On the 2nd of February, I once more met Father 

On the 6th, I left him, and went with the Savages 
who accompanied me to encamp near a very fine 
river. There we remained some days in peace, until 
Father Albanel sent a Frenchman to warn me that 
fear reigned everywhere; that the Iroquois were 
believed to be on the war-path ; that they had sur 
prised a band of our Savages at lake Kinougami; 
and that the Outabitibecs and other tribes were gath 
ering in a fortified enclosure for shelter and defense. 
This bad news compelled me to go to them, to con 
fess and encourage them, because Father Albanel 
was still crippled by his injury. I set out, accom 
panied by one Frenchman. 


surpris un parti de nos Sauvages au lac de Kinou- 
gami; que les Outabitibecs et autres tribus se ras- 
semblaient dans une enceinte, afin de s y 
mettre a convert et en defense. Ces tristes nouvelles 
m obligerent de les aller trouver pour les confesser 
et les encourager, parce que le P. Albanel etait 
encore incommode" de sa blessure. Je me mis en 
chemin, accompagne d un Frangais. 

Nous fimes vingt lieues dans les bois, avec des 
peines incroyables, et dans la crainte continuelle 
d etre rencontre s par les Iroquois. Nous trouvions 
sur notre route grand nombre de cabanes que la peur 
avait fait abandonner. 

Le 3 mars, nous arrivames a 1 endroit oil les Sau 
vages s etaient fortifies. Us e"taient bien au nombre 
de quatre-vingts hommes bien decides. Us furent 
ravis de nous voir. Je les consolai de mon mieux et 
je les confessai. Cependant -un de leurs chefs etait 
alle" avec trois jeunes gens pour de"couvrir 1 ennemi; 
en attendant, nous passames quatre nuits dans 
l 6pouvante, et pendant les deux premieres nous 
couchames dans leur fort et sur la neige. 

Le 5, ceux qui etaient alles & la de"couverte 
revinrent et nous rassurerent un peu. Us nous 
apprirent que le meurtre qui avait cause cette panique 
generate ne s etait pas fait si pres de nous, mais au 
lac de Piecouagami, et que les Sauvages qui demeu- 
raient sur ces bords allaient se fortifier et s assembler 
en grand nombre pour attaquer les Iroquois, le prin- 
temps prochain. 

Ces nouvelles, qui nous tranquillisaient, me per- 
mirent de retourner a ma premiere cabane. J y e"tais 
depuis quelques jours, lorsque cinq Sauvages envoyes 
par le chef des Mistassins vinrent m avertir de sa 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673- 74 41 

We walked twenty leagues in the woods, with 
incredible difficulty, and in continual dread of being 
set upon by the Iroquois. On the way we came 
upon a great number of cabins abandoned through 

On the 3rd of March, we reached the spot where 
the Savages had fortified themselves; there were at 
least eighty determined men. They were delighted 
to see us. I consoled them to the best of my ability, 
and confessed them. Meanwhile, one of their chiefs 
had gone with three young men to reconnoiter the 
enemy; while awaiting their return we passed four 
nights in dread, and, during the first two, we slept 
in their fort and upon the snow. 

On the 5th, those who had gone to reconnoiter 
came back and somewhat reassured us. They told 
us that the massacre that had caused the general 
panic had not taken place so close to us, but at lake 
Pie"couagami ; and that the Savages dwelling on its 
shores were going to fortify themselves, and gather 
in great numbers to attack the Iroquois the following 

This news, which quieted us, enabled me to return 
to my first cabin. I had been there a few days when 
five Savages, sent by the chief of the Mistassins, 
came to notify me on his behalf to go and instruct 
him. He had especially charged them to help 
me as much as they could, so as to smooth the diffi 
culties and shorten the length of the journey that 
must be performed in order to reach him. 

I set out with them on the 26th of March. We 
were obliged to walk in water half-way up to our 
thighs, and with great difficulty. We set up our cabin 
on the top of a hill that borders on the river called 


part de Taller trouver pour 1 instruire. II leur avait 
fort recommande" de m aider autant qu ils pourraient 
pour adoucir les difficultes et la longueur du chemin 
qu il y avait & parcourir pour arriver jusqu lui. 

Je partis avec eux le 26 mars. Nous fumes obliges 
de marcher dans 1 eau jusqu mi-jambes et avec bien 
de la peine. Nous e tablimes notre cabane au haut 
d une colline qui borde la riviere qu on nomme 
Emenipemagau, & cause de sa rapidite et de plusieurs 
ilots dont elle est entrecoupee. Elle est en outre 
tres-large et tres-profonde, et extremement poisson- 
neuse. Elle descend vers le nord-ouest, oii, perdant 
un peu de sa largeur, elle prend le nom de riviere 
des Papinachois. 

Nous marchames deux grandes journees pour trou 
ver la chute d eau dont elle est coupee. Ce ne fut 
pas sans de grandes fatigues, parce que nous e"tions 
obliges de marcher continuellement sur les glaces, 
qui 6taient extremement unies et glissantes. Enfin 
nous arrivames & la belle riviere de Mauchau- 
traganich. J y trouvai plusieurs Sauvages qui me 
reurent avec tous les te"moignages de joie dont ils 
purent s aviser. Ils n epargnaient ni les festins, ni 
les danses, ni les chants, et ils venaient incessamment 
me visiter, au point que je trouvai ces pauvres gens 
tout disposes & recevoir mes instructions, et j ad- 
mirai les miracles de la grace, qui les avait ainsi 
pr6pare"s & m e couter. Je me mis les instruire, en 
particulier et en public, pendant six ou sept semaines, 
qui me semblerent bien courtes. J en baptisai cent 
deux, tant enfants qu adultes, et entre autres deux de 
leurs chefs. Ces bons Sauvages me te"moignerent 
publiquement leur joie et ne savaient de quelle ma- 
niere me remercier du bien que je leur avais fait en 

1 673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 -74 43 

Emenipemagau, on account of its rapidity and of 
several islets in it. It is moreover very wide and 
very deep, and exceedingly well stocked with fish. 
It flows toward the northwest, where, losing a little 
of its width, it takes the name of " river of the 

We journeyed fully two days to find the waterfall 
that breaks its course. This was not done without 
great fatigue, because we were obliged to walk 
continually on the ice, which was very smooth and 
slippery. At last, we reached the fine river of 
Mauchautraganich. 5 I found many Savages there, 
who received me with all the evidences of joy that 
their minds could suggest. They spared neither 
feasts, nor dances, nor songs, and continually came 
to visit me so much, that I found these poor 
people fully disposed to receive my instructions, 
and I admired the miracles of grace which had thus 
prepared them to listen to me. I set to work to 
instruct them, in private and in public, during six 
or seven weeks, which seemed to me very short. I 
baptized one hundred and two, both children and 
adults and, among others, two of their chiefs. 
These good Savages publicly manifested to me their 
joy, and knew not how to thank me for the favor that 
I had done them by administering to them baptism. 
Four old men, whom I had deferred baptizing for a 
year, were among those who received me in this vil 
lage. They stated in a public discourse how happy 
they esteemed themselves ; and they invited me to 
instruct them more fully, and to come back to see 
them again, which I promised to do. 

Among these Savages, several who had come from 
the Northern bay were greatly surprised at seeing 


leur conferant le bapteme. Qtiatre vieillards qui 
je 1 avais diff6r6 depuis un an e"taient du nombre de 
ceux qui me rejurent dans cette bourgade ; ils de"cla- 
rerent par un discours public combien ils s estimaient 
heureux, et me convierent a les instruire plus pleine- 
ment et a les revenir trouver, ce que je leur promis. 

Parmi ces Sauvages, plusieurs, qui 6taient descen- 
dus de la baie du Nord, furent fort surpris de voir 
des Fran9ais venir de si loin, et furent ravis d en- 
tendre les discours que je leur adressai sur la 
religion. Ils promirent tous de se rendre au prin- 
temps prochain a 1 endroit ou ils apprendraient que 
je ferais la Mission, afin d etre instruits plus a loisir 
qu ils ne pouvaient 1 etre pour lors; ils ajouterent 
meme qu ils s eflforceraient d amener avec eux grand 
nombre de leurs compatriotes pour le meme dessein. 

Cependant une partie des Mistassins partirent peu 
de temps apres pour Quebec, afin d aller presenter 
leurs respects a M. de Frontenac, gouverneur du 
Canada. Ils avaient aussi intention de lui demander 
sa protection contre 1 Iroquois, de 1* assurer qu ils le 
prenaient pour leur pere, et qu afin de porter mieux 
la qualite de ses enfants, ils voulaient continuer d ai- 
mer la Priere, pour laquelle ils savaient qu il avait 
tant de zele. Je m embarquai avec eux. Pendant 
notre voyage, nous fumes presque tous malades, et 
quatre ou cinq des plus ages moururent. Ces bons 
Sauvages n avaient point encore vu de missionnaires 
avant moi, et, comme ils s etaient convertis des les 
premieres instructions qu ils avaient reues, Dieu 
voulut re compenser ainsi leur promptitude a ob6ir a 
la grace, en leur accordant la grace de mourir peu de 
temps apres leur bapteme. J e"tais assez abattu par 
la faim que j avais soufferte en diverses rencontres, 

1673- 77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 45 

Frenchmen come from so great a distance, and were 
delighted to hear the discourses that I addressed to 
them upon religion. They all promised to come, in 
the following spring, to the place where they should 
learn that I was holding my Mission, in order to be 
instructed more at leisure than they could then be. 
They also added that they would endeavor to bring 
a large number of their countrymen with them, for 
the same purpose. 

Meanwhile, a portion of the Mistassins left shortly 
afterward for Quebec, to present their respects to 
Monsieur de Frontenac, the governor of Canada. 
They also intended to crave his protection against 
the Iroquois ; and to assure him that they took him 
for their father, and that, to become worthier of 
being his children, they would continue to love 
Prayer, for which they knew he was so zealous. I 
embarked with them. During our journey we were 
nearly all sick, and four or five of the older ones 
died. These good Savages had never seen any other 
missionaries before they saw me ; and, as they were 
converted on receiving the very first instructions, it 
was God s will to thus reward their promptness in 
obeying grace, by granting them the favor of dying 
shortly after their baptism. I was somewhat weak 
ened by the hunger that I had endured on various 
occasions, and by the fatigues caused me by so many 
arduous journeys; but God gave me still sufficient 
strength to carry out the rest of my undertaking. 

We left on the 6th of May, and made three long 
portages before reaching the river of the Mistassins 
and that of the Papinachois. Bad weather, rain, and 
mosquitoes greatly annoyed us. I nevertheless 
visited some poor sick persons, and four large cabins, 


et par les fatigues que m avaient causers tant de 
voyages si difficiles, mais Dieu me donna encore 
assez de force pour achever le reste. 

Partis le 6 de mai, nous fimes trois grands 
portages avant que de nous rendre a la riviere des 
Mistassins et a celle des Papinachois. Le mauvais 
temps, la pluie et les maringoins, nous incommode- 
rent beaucoup. Je visitai cependant quelques pauvres 
malades et quatre grandes cabanes, que je trouvai 
sur les bords du Manaouni, riviere extremement 
poissonneuse, qui nourrit quantite" de brockets d une 
grosseur extraordinaire. Apres etre demeure" quel 
ques jours aupres du grand et profond lac d Echita- 
gameth, ou je baptisai trois personnes, je me remis en 
chemin, accompagn6 de vingt canots de Sauvages. 
Nous franchimes heureusement douze rapides, ou 
les eaux e"taient si basses qu il fallut nous mettre a 
1 eau pour trainer nos canots nous-memes, ce qui ne 
se put faire sans beaucoup de peine. 

Le 24 mai, nous arrivames a Che coutimi; j y trou 
vai quelques Franjais et grand nombre de Sauvages, 
auxquels j expliquai les ve rite s de notre Foi. Je 
confe"rai le bapteme a trois enfants et je le diffe"rai a 
quelques adultes qui le demandaient; je voulais 
qu ils en connussent encore mieux 1 importance, et 
que j eusse moi-meme plus de loisir de connaitre 
s ils en e"taient dignes. 

Le 31, je quittai Che coutimi, accompagn6 seule- 
ment de douze canots. Nous arrivames Quebec 
peu de jours apres, et les Sauvages que j avais 
emmene s allerent sur-le-champ rendre leurs respects 
a M. le comte de Frontenac, qui les re9Ut avec bien 
de la bonte", et qui les exhorta fortement a continuer 
de vivre en ve"ritables Chretiens. 

167S-77] RELATION OF 1673-74 4T 

that I found on the banks of the Manaouni, a river 
abundantly stocked with fish, which yielded a great 
many pike, of extraordinary size. After remaining 
some days near the great and deep lake Echitaga- 
meth, where I baptized three persons, I continued 
my journey, accompanied by twenty canoes of Sav 
ages. We successfully passed twelve rapids, where 
the stream was so low that we had to get into the 
water to drag our canoes ourselves, which could not 
be done without much difficulty. 

On the 24th of May, we arrived at Che"coutimi ; 
there I found some Frenchmen and a great many 
Savages, to whom I explained the truths of our Faith. 
I administered baptism to three children and deferred 
baptizing some adults who asked for it. I wished 
them to more fully realize its importance, and for 
myself to have more leisure for ascertaining whether 
they were worthy of it. 

On the 3 1st, I left Che coutimi, accompanied by 
only twelve canoes. We reached Quebec a few days 
afterward; and the Savages whom I had brought 
with me proceeded at once to pay their respects to 
Monsieur the count de Frontenac. He received them 
with great kindness, and earnestly exhorted them to 
continue to live as true Christians. 




SOUS le nom des Sept-lies est compris tin pays de 
la cote du Nord, & plus de cent lieues de 
Quebec, en descendant sur le fleuve de Saint- 
Laurent, cm de fait Ton voit sept lies, qui ne sont 
composees que de rochers fort steriles et couverts 
seulement de me chants arbrisseaux. La plus grande 
n a pas deux lieues de tour, et la plus pres de la 
terre n en est e loigne e que d une bonne lieue. Elles 
ne laissent pas pourtant d etre assez fameuses, a 
cause du concours des Sauvages, qui, apres avoir 
chasse" dans les forets de la terre ferme, se rendent 
de temps en temps a une riviere assez voisine de 
ces iles, pour y trafiquer avec les Franjais que le 
commerce y attire. 

C est la proprement le pays des nations qu on 
nomme Oumamiois, dont la langue tire son origine 
de celle des Sauvages de Tadoussac, quoiqu elle ait 
beaucoup plus de mots et d idiomes differents. 

Ces Sauvages sont naturellement bons et fort 
traitables; ils tmoignent des dispositions assez 
favorables au Christianisme, car pour avoir seule 
ment entendu parler de la Foi par leurs voisins, ils 
de"sirent avec ardeur d etre instruits eux-memes et 
d avoir au milieu d eux quelqu un de nos Peres. 

Ils ne sont pas bien eloignes des Esquimaux, 
dont ceux qui les avoisinent du cote" du midi ne sont 

1 673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 


UNDER the name of Sept lies is comprised a 
region on the North shore, more than a 
hundred leagues distant from Quebec, as one 
descends the Saint Lawrence River. There may in 
deed be seen seven islands, which are composed only 
of rocks, very sterile, and having but stunted shrubs 
for covering. The largest of the islands is less than 
two leagues in circumference; and that nearest to 
the land is only a good league distant therefrom. 
They are, however, quite noted, on account of the 
concourse of Savages, who, after hunting in the 
forests on the mainland, resort from time to time 
to a river quite near these islands, in order to trade 
with the French who are drawn thither by commerce. 

That region is properly the country of the tribes 
whom we call Oumamiois; their language takes its 
origin from that of the Tadoussac Savages, although 
it has many more words and a greater range of idioms. 

Those Savages are naturally good, and very tract 
able ; they manifest a disposition very favorable to 
Christianity, for although they have only heard of 
the Faith through their neighbors talk, they eagerly 
desire to be themselves instructed, and to have among 
them one of our Fathers. 

They are not very distant from the Esquimaux; 
their neighbors among those tribes toward the south 
are not so fierce as are the hordes of the same name 


pas aussi farouches que d autres peuplades du meme 
nom qui habitant plus au nord. Ces derniers, ainsi 
qu on nous 1 a assure^ de"truisirent Tan passe" un vais- 
seau venu d Europe, avec tout son equipage, pour 
venger la mort de quelques-uns des leurs, qui avaient 
6t6 tile s par des gens du navire, dans un demele 
survenu pendant qu ils traitaient ensemble. 

Toute la cote de cette mer est horrible k voir. 
Ce ne sont que des rochers entass6s les uns sur les 
autres, charge s de mediants halliers et d un petit 
bois fort e"pais, dans lequel les Sauvages ne pour- 
raient pas chasser, s ils n etaient tout habills de 
peaux, et non pas de nos etoffes, qui s en iraient 
bientot en pieces. 

Ces roches sont couples par beaucoup de rivieres 
dont plusieurs, qui sont assez considerables, se 
de"chargent dans la mer, et font a leur embouchure 
des havres fort commodes pour y recevoir des 

Le gibier est tres-abondant en ces quartiers, mais 
ce sont tous oiseaux de mer, peu agreables au gout, 
parce qu ils ont un gout d huile qui est insuppor 
table. L on pourrait faire dans ces environs grande 
peche de saumon, de morue, de loups marins et 
meme de baleines qui se trouvent en abondance, et de 
toute grandeur, dans une belle et large baie, dans 
laquelle on les prendrait assez aisement. Ces deux 
sortes de poissons, les baleines et les loups marins, 
pourraient fournir un grand commerce d huile, si 
on 1 entreprenait comme il faut. 

Les Sauvages de ces cotes etant, comme j ai dit, 
d un assez bon naturel, et desirant d etre instruits, le 
P. Louis Nicolas a fait 1 ouverture de cette Mission 

167S - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 - 74 51 

who dwell farther north. These latter, as we have 
been assured, destroyed last year a vessel which had 
come from Europe, with all its crew, in order to 
avenge the deaths of some of their tribesmen ; these 
had been slain by some of the ship s people, in a 
quarrel that arose while they were trading together. 

All the coast of this sea is frightful to behold ; 
there is naught but rocks piled together, encumbered 
with low thickets and a dense growth of stunted trees. 
Our Savages could not hunt there, if they were not 
entirely clad in skins instead of our stuffs, which 
would be quickly torn to pieces. 

These rocky lands are intersected by numerous 
rivers; some of these, of considerable volume, dis 
charge their waters into the sea, and at their mouths 
form very commodious harbors for the reception of 
barks. 6 

Game is very abundant in this quarter, but it com 
prises only sea-birds ; their flesh is disagreeable to the 
palate, for it has an oily flavor that is insupportable. 
In that vicinity could be carried on an extensive fish 
ery of salmon, codfish, seals, and even whales, 
which are found in abundance and of great size, in 
a fine and large bay, in which they could easily be 
taken. These two kinds of fish, whales and seals, 
could supply a great commerce in oil, if it were 
undertaken in the right way. 

As the Savages of that coast are, as I have said, 
very friendly and desirous of being instructed, Father 
Louis Nicolas, 7 about the end of spring, made the 
beginning of that Mission. It is, correctly speaking, 
only an attempt; for the Father went mainly to 
ascertain how he ought to go to work, in order to 
labor efficaciously for the salvation of those peoples. 


vers la fin du printemps. Ce n est a proprement 
parler qu un essai, car ce Pere est all surtout 
examiner comment on doit s y prendre pour travailler 
efficacement an salut de ces peuples. II y a baptise 
quelques enfants, et a fait fonction de missionnaire 
envers les atitres, pendant le pen de temps qn il y 
est reste. 

Le mal de terre, qui a fortement eprouve les Fran- 
fais qui ont hivern6 en ce pays, et qui meme en a 
fait mourir deux, a oblige les autres a se retirer au 
plus tot, et le missionnaire avec eux. Mais on a 
promis aux Sauvages que, le printemps prochain, il 
retournerait les voir pour les instruire entierement, 
et leur faire part du sang de Je"sus- Christ, qui ne 1 a 
pas moins verse pour ces pauvres barbares que pour 
les rois de la terre. 

Si 1 on pousse plus avant dans ces regions du nord 
on trouvera encore d autres nations plus, 
il est vrai, que celle-ci, mais qui ne le sont pas telle- 
ment que les maximes de 1 Evangile ne puissent les 
gagner Dieu, aussi bien que les autres peuples 
sauvages de ce nouveau monde. 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1^3-74 53 

He baptized some children there, and performed the 
duties df a missionary toward the others, during the 
short time that he spent there. 

The scurvy, which severely tried the French 
who wintered in that country, and even caused two 
of them to die, has obliged them, and the missionary 
also, to leave it as soon as possible. But he promised 
the Savages that next spring he would return to 
them, that he might fully instruct them, and make 
them share in the blood of Jesus Christ, which he 
has shed not less for these poor barbarians than for 
the kings of earth. 

If one could push farther into those northern 
regions, one would find still other nations more 
untamed, it is true, than are these; but not so much 
so that the maxims of the Gospel could not win them 
to God, as well as the other savage peoples of this 
new world. 



CXXX1V. Memoire pour un Miffionaire qui ira aux 7 isles ; 

Louis Nicolas, [La Prairie, 1673] 

CXXXV. Lettre du P. Claude Dablon au R. P. Pinette ; 
Quebec, 24 octobre, 1674 

SOURCES : Doc. CXXXIV. is reproduced from the original 
MS., which is conserved in the archives of St. Mary s 
College, Montreal. The text of Doc. CXXXV. is obtained 
from Douniol s Relations inddites, t. ii., pp. 3-i$> 


Memoire pour un Miffionaire qui ira aux 7 isles 

q 9 les Sauuages appellent ManisB- 

nagBch ou Bien MansBnok. 

1L y Trouuera au printemps prochain en diuerses 
fois enuiron 150 perfonnes tant grands q 9 petits 
il pourrea les uoir tous et pent estre d autres qui 
arriueront des Terres ou des bords de la mer. den- 
haut il ny peut auoir q 9 les Papinachois. den has les 
Hmamiyetch qui font une nation des esKimeaux et les 
esKimeaux niesme pourront uenir toutes ces nations 
parlent quasi de mefme le fons de leur langue est 
Montagnes il est Beaucoup different de celuy de ceux 
qui uiennent a Tadfetssak et chektftimi et a Pigtfagami 
Pour les entendre raifonnablement il faut Bien 
fcauvoir le Montagnes. 

ceux q 9 J ay ueu au nombre de 26 3 iours q 9 Jay 
este dans leurs pays me paroiffent forts bons et 
bien traitables ils desirent de prier et fe plaignent de 
ce q 9 tout au plus ils uoyent les PP 2 ou 3 nuicts. 

ceux qui font plus bas q 9 les 7 Isles font plus 
farouches pour n auoir lamais hante" les francois ou 
europeans ils ont pourtant le naturel doux nobitant 
cela ils on desfaict un nauire des nations d europe et 
cela dans une querelle apres la boiffon et la desfaicte 
de quelq 9 un de leurs gens q 9 les europeans atta- 
querent et tuerent les premiers. 

Toute la cofle de la mer est horrible il ny a pas un 
poulie" de Terre tout est rochers, couuerts de Tres 
petits arbres pruches Sapins que la petit Bouleau 

1673-77] THE SEVEN ISLANDS 57 

Memorandum for a Missionary who will go to 

the 7 islands, which the Savages call Mani- 

sounagouch, or, Properly, Mansounok. 

HE will Find there next spring, at various times, 
about 150 persons, both adults and children. 
He will probably see all these and perhaps 
others, who will come from the Interior or from the 
shores of the sea. From above, he can have only 
the Papinachois; from below, the Oumamiwetch, 
who are a nation of eskimeaux, and even the eski- 
meaux may come. All these nations speak nearly 
the same tongue. The foundation of their language 
is Montagnais ; it is Very different from that of the 
people who come to Tadoussak and chekoutimi and 
to Pigwagami. To understand them aright, it is 
necessary to have a Good knowledge of Montagnais. 

Those whom I saw, to the number of 26, during the 
3 days that I spent in their country, appeared to me 
very good and quite tractable. They wish to pray, 
and complain that, at the most, they only see the 
Fathers for 2 or 3 nights. 

Those who are farther down than the 7 Islands are 
less sociable, for they have Never associated with 
the french or europeans. They have, however, 
gentle natures. Notwithstanding this, they destroyed 
a european ship ; and that in consequence of a quarrel 
after drinking, and the defeat of some of their people, 
whom the europeans had first attacked and killed. 

The entire sea-coast is of frightful aspect. There 
is not even the space of a drying-ground of Soil ; it is 
all rocks, covered with Very small trees of spruce 


pas tin bel arbre, il y a du gibier fans fin tons 
oyfeaux de marine qui puent Ihuylle a plaine Bouche. 

il y a Beaucoup de petites riuiers et quelq 9 grandes 
ou il y a de Beaux haures ou les petits bastimens 
entrent auec afses de peine quand les vents ne font 
pas fauorables Tout le long de la cofte on uoit des 
loups marins dont les Sauuages uiuent tout 1 este" les 
francois peuuent faire Beaucoup dhuilles des loups 
marins q 9 les fauuages tuent et des moulues queux 
mesmes prendront en abondance dans une grande 
Baye endeca des 7 isles uis a uis la riuiere St eus- 
tache et un peu au dela du Katfi qui est le bout de 
la baye en reuenant a quebek dans cette Baye II y a 
grande quantite" de grofses et de petites Balenes si 
les francois pouuoint trouuer le fecret de les prendre 
ils pourroint bien fournir des huilles et faire un 
Beau commerce en europe auec cela. 

Vn mifsionaire auroit Bien le Loisir d istruire les 
fauuages de toutes ces cofles fi les francois y fai- 
soint la pefche des Balenes furtout, ou bien des loup 
marins ou tout au moins du faumon qui y abonde en 
diuerses riuieres particulierement dans celle q 9 les 
sauuages appellent Chimanibit qui eft uis a uis des 7 
ifles II ny a rien a faire pour un hyuernement pour 
les francois ny pour un missionaire a caufe q 9 les 
fauuages uont en trop petites bandes et ils n ont pas 
Beaucoup de chafse outre q 9 les bois font tres diffi- 
celles a caufe de lespefleur des bois quoq 9 tres petits 
on y deschire toutes les hardes francoises cest pour 
quoy les fauuages ne veulent f habiller q 9 de peaux 
a caufe q 9 les forests eftants tres espaifses les chaf- 
seurs y deschirent toutes les estoffes q 9 les franjois 
leurs Baillent dans moins d un Jour. 

1673-77] THE SEVEN ISLANDS 59 

and Fir, save the little Birch, not one beautiful tree. 
There is no end to game, all marine birds, which, 
to speak Frankly, stink of oil. 

There are Many small rivers, and some large ones 
where there are Beautiful harbors, into which the 
little ships enter with considerable difficulty when 
the winds are not favorable. All along the coast, 
seals are to be seen, upon which the Savages live 
during the entire summer. The french can make a 
Great deal of oil from the seals that the savages kill, 
and from the codfish that they themselves will catch 
in abundance in a large Bay on this side of the 7 
islands, opposite the river St. eustache and a little 
beyond Kawi, which is the end of the bay in 
returning to quebek. In this Bay, There is great 
abundance of Whales, large and small. If the french 
could find the secret of catching these, they could 
very well furnish oil, and thus carry on a Fine trade 
with europe. 

A missionary would Easily obtain Opportunity to 
instruct the savages of all these coasts, if the french 
conducted fisheries there, especially for Whales, or 
else for seals, or, at least, for salmon, which abound 
here in various rivers, especially in that which the 
savages call Chimanibit, which is opposite the 7 
islands. There is nothing for the french or for a 
missionary to do in the winter, because the savages 
go about in too small bands, and do not have Much 
hunting. Besides, the woods are very hard to pass 
through, on account of the density of the trees, 
although these are very small ; all french clothes are 
torn in them. On this account, the savages will wear 
nothing but skins, because, the forests being very 
dense, the hunters, in less than a Day, tear all the 
stuffs that the french Sell them. 


Tous les 26 fauuages q 9 J ay ueu eftoint Baptizes a 
la reserue de 3 petits enfans q 9 Jay Baptize" 
Voicy leurs noms 

Ludouicus estamX. papinachitfi. 
francifca apiK^fitf 8papinachiKtfe. 

fillii eoru et filiae 
Ignatius nematchiabamat. 
Josephus 8tcha&na. 
Anna Hmifcimau. 
Anna K&aK&pana. 

Maria nipeKaftf. fait semblant de dormir 
Joannam papamifktfetf Baptizaui die 3 Junii 

1673. patrinus fuit d. lambertus 
Antonius abf Ab8 Bouillon de lieure. 
maria magdalena lachagaftetf 6 uidi eius con- 


ignatius attfirinitf. 
catharina cheskaitf. 

non recordantur nominu fuoru 
Xestchinili cas faict femblant defstre Jeune, 

duas habuit mulieres Interrogandus an &c. 

nomen illius nationis eft tfeparitfiatfj. 
KikHan^ a decem. annis Baptizatus tftchifestigtf 

nation e 
eius coniux nominatur pepisagtftatf. ManiKiia- 


Filia eius catharina egasitabe nominatur. 
filius eius nominatur meschifeabamat 
Dyonyfiu eius paruulu filiu Batizaui die 3 lun 

1673 nominant Sylueflres Kamachiflietfanet 

celuy quil faut qui ait mauuaife Tefle patrinus 

fuit dyonifms tfron 

1673 - 77] THE SE VEN I SLA NDS 61 

All the 26 savages whom I saw were Baptized, with 
the exception of 3 little children, whom I Baptized. 
Here are their names : 

Louis estamou, a papinachi. 
frangoise apikousiou, a papinachi. 

Their sons and daughters : 
ignace nematchiabamat. 
Joseph Outchaouna. 
Anne Oumiscimau. 
Anne Kwakoupana. 
Marie nipekasou " feigns to sleep." 
Jeanne papamiskweou was Baptized by me on 

the 3rd of June, 1673; her godfather was 

monsieur lambert. 8 

Antoine WabousAbou " hare s Broth." 
marie magdelaine lachagasteou. I did not see 

her husband, 
ignace atwiriniou. 
Catherine cheskaiou. 

These do not recall their names : 
Westchinisi casou " pretends to be Young" 

had two wives; he must be questioned 

whether etc. ; the name of his nation is 

Kikwanou was Baptized ten years ago; is of 

the Outchisestigou nation. 
His wife is named pepisagoutaou, of the 

Manikwagan tribe. 
A daughter of his is named Catherine egwasita- 


A son is named meschiseabamat. 
Denys, his infant son, was Baptized by me June 

3, 1673; the Savages call him Kamachistie- 

wanet he who needs must have a stubborn 

Head ; his godfather was denys Ouron. 


Francifcus taktfatchifenapetf le petit grand 

Mafle est filius coniugis KiktfanK 
petrus. pepaktfsinagtftietf, celuy qui paroit tou- 

siours malade. 
^ Barnabas eittfcha funt duo filii KiK8an8. 

Pentske Mitchititf, 1 aigle. 
f eius coniux mischitia nominatur non recordatur 

nominis sui neq 9 Baptifimi et fi grandseua 

eius filius nominatur Ludouicus chakarag, a 

duobus annis eu Baptizaui &. nempe die 7 

oct. 1671 
Ketinam vetula non recordatur fui Baptismi 

etfi fit Baptifata ut mihi affirmatu eft a Syl- 

ueftri muliere, ite mihi fimiliter affirmatu 

eft de mifchitia q 9 fuerit Batizata alias a 

patribus noftris 
Bernardinu Batizaui puerulu die 3* lunij 1673 

patrinus fuit de Beaulieu eum pueru Syl- 

ueftres nominant mtftecha. 
Josephus autichi8 manu h 1 ^ .^., habet] gelidam 


Non recordantur nominu fuoru 

Charolus, Kachina^aygat, qui resemble au pied. 
[Crossed out in original: Oes numero funt 26 
quos uidi ft oes Baptizati] 


1673-77] THE SEVEN ISLANDS 68 

Fran9ois takwatchisenapeou " the little big 
Man " is the son of the wife of Kikwanou. 

pierre pepakousinagoutieou "he who always 
looks sick" and Barnabe eitoucha are two 
sons of Kikwanou. 

Pentske Mitchitiou " the eagle." 

His wife is named mischitia ; she does not recall 
her name or her Baptism, but she is very 

His son is named Louis chakaragou; I Baptized 
him two years ago, October 7, 1671. 

Kwetinamou, an old woman, does not recall her 
Baptism, although she is Baptized, as has 
been affirmed to me by a Savage woman; I 
am told the same concerning mischitia 
that she has been elsewhere Baptized by 
our fathers. 

Bernardin, a little boy, was Baptized by me 
June 3, 1673; his godfather was de Beau- 
lieu; the Savages call the boy moutecha. 

Joseph Wautichiou "has a cold hand" 
These do not recall their names: 




. touskatisiwa. 

Charles, Kachinawaougat " he who resembles 


[Crossed out in original : The number of all whom 
I saw is 26; they are all Baptized.] 




Lettre du P. Claude Dablon Superieur des 
Missions du Canada et recteur de 
Quebec au R. P. Pinette Pro 
vincial de France. 

A QUEBEC, ce 24 octobre 1674. 

Pax Christi. 

J adresse cette lettre a Votre Reverence pour 
1 informer en general de 1 etat de toutes nos Mis 
sions. Elle aura la consolation de voir, par ce peu 
que je lui Scris, que le nom de Jesus-Christ retentit 
en toutes nos forets, et qu il est adore, ou du moins 
reconnu de tous ces peuples; nos Peres s y employ- 
ant avec un zele indicible, un courage d apotres, et 
une saintete" digne des vrais enfants de saint Igna ce. 

Votre Reverence me permettra bien de parcourir 
un peu toutes les parties de notre Amerique, et apres 
avoir parle du dehors et des Missions les plus eloi- 
gnees, je parlerai du dedans et de celles qui sont 
proches; car partout je ne trouve que du bien dire 
et des saints a admirer. 

Pour commencer par le Nord, Votre ReV^rence 
sait que le P. Charles Albanel partit il y a un an pour 
faire un second voyage a la mer du Nord, arm d y 
cultiver beaucoup de Chretiens qu il y a baptises, et 
d en augmenter le nombre. II a hivern6 en chemin 
a plus de cent lieues d ici, mais ce n a pas et6 sans 
beaucoup souffrir. Car outre la famine et les autres 


Letter of Father Claude Dablon, Superior of the 
Missions of Canada and rector of Que 
bec, to Reverend Father Pinette, 
Provincial of France. 

QUEBEC, the 24th of October, 1674. 

Pax Christi. 

I address this letter to Your Reverence to 
give you general information of the state of all our 
Missions. From the little that I write, you will 
have the consolation of seeing that the name of Jesus 
Christ resounds throughout all our forests, and that 
he is adored or, at least, is acknowledged by all 
these tribes ; for our Fathers labor among them with 
ineffable zeal, a courage worthy of apostles, and a 
holiness befitting the true children of saint Ignatius. 

Your Reverence will permit me to refer, in a few 
words, to all parts of our America; and, after speaking 
of outside countries and of the most distant Missions, 
I shall speak of this country itself, and of the mis 
sions that are near us, for I find everywhere nothing 
but good to say and saints to admire. 9 

To begin at the North, Your Reverence knows 
that Father Charles Albanel started a year ago on a 
second voyage to the Northern sea, in order to minis 
ter to many Christians whom he baptized there, and 
to increase their number. He wintered on the road 
at a place over one hundred leagues from here, but 


miseres qui sont ordinaires en ces sortes d hiverne- 
ments ; apres avoir depense* tout ce qu il avait port6 
pour vivre, s en servant pour gagner et conserver ses 
Sauvages ; apres avoir et6 longtemps couche" sur terre, 
sans pouvoir remuer a cause d une chute facheuse, il 
a e*te" abandonne des Sauvages qui le devaient con- 
duire, et des Frangais qui le devaient accompagner. 
Nonobstant tout cela, ayant de plus appris que les 
Anglais s e"taient rendus par mer dans 1 endroit 
meme ou il allait, qu ils s y e*taient fortifies, et mena- 
caient de le tuer s il se hasardait ay venir; nonob- 
stant tout cela, dis-je, ce ge ne reux missionnaire, qui 
a plus de soixante ans, et qui est tout casse" par ses 
anciens travaux, et surtout par ceux de son dernier 
voyage, n a pas laisse* de poursuivre son chemin, ne 
s appuyant que sur la Providence, et s abandonnant 
a mille et mille dangers qu il preVoyait, tant il a de 
zele pour le salut de ses cheres ouailles et pour la 
gloire du nom de J^sus- Christ, qu il veut porter a 
diverses nations qui sont sur les cotes de cette mer 
lointaine, et qui n en ont jamais entendu parler. 

Apres les heureuses tentatives faites, il y a deux 
ans, par le P. Albanel, pour manager un acces plus 
facile vers la mer du Nord, on attendait de notre 
part de nouvelles entreprises pour de"couvrir la mer 
du Midi. C est ce qu a fait cette anne"e le P. Mar- 
quette, qui, apres avoir pouss6 sa course jusqu au 
33 e degre" d e*levation, en est revenu heureusement le 
printemps passe". II tient pour certain, qu e"tant 
descendu pendant plusieurs jours le grand fleuve 
qu il a decouvert, il est arrive dans la Floride, et 
que s il eut continue a descendre encore quarante ou 
cinquante lieues, il aurait rencontre" le golfe du 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 67 

not without great suffering. For, in addition to 
famine and the other hardships which usually accom 
pany such winterings, after having consumed all 
the provisions that he had brought, making use of 
them to win and to retain his Savages ; after having 
slept for a long while on the ground without being 
able to stir, owing to an unfortunate fall, he was 
abandoned by the Savages who were to guide, and by 
the French who were to accompany him. Notwith 
standing all this, when he learned that the English 
also had proceeded by sea to the very place where 
he was going; that they had fortified themselves 
there, and threatened to kill him if he ventured 
thither, notwithstanding all this, I say, that noble 
missionary, who is over sixty years of age and is 
quite worn out by his former labors and, above 
all, by the fatigues of his last voyage did not fail 
to continue his journey. He relied solely upon 
Providence, and exposed himself to a thousand dan 
gers that he foresaw such is his zeal for the salva 
tion of his beloved flock, and for the glory of the 
name of Jesus Christ, which he wishes to bear to 
various nations on the shores of that distant sea who 
have never heard it. 

After the successful attempts made, two years ago, 
by Father Albanel to secure easier access to the 
Northern sea, fresh enterprises were expected on 
our part for the discovery of the Southern sea. 
This was done this year by Father Marquette, who, 
after extending his journey to the 3 3rd degree of 
latitude, came back safely last spring. He regards 
it as certain that, after descending for several days 
the great river that he discovered, he arrived in 
Florida; and that, if he had continued to descend 



Ce Pere, depuis son retour, est reste dans le pays 
des Outaouais, pour etre tout pret a etablir des Mis 
sions chez les Illinois, qui sont les plus proches et 
les plus dociles parmi les peuples qu il a decouverts. 
S il ne retourne pas vers eux des cette anne"e, ce sera 
parce que nous ne devons pas abandonner ceux 
que nous avons commence d instruire. 

Nos autres missionnaires des Outaouais travaillent, 
chacun a leurs Missions, saintement et utilement. 
Us ont baptise, depuis un an, plus de cinq cents inn- 
deles, et le seul P. Bailloquet a baptise cet 6t6, en 
deux mois, une centaine d enfants et quelques 
adultes, dont la moitie du moins est assure~e pour le 
paradis. II a fait cette re*colte pendant que les Sau- 
vages, avec qui il etait, faisaient celle de certains 
petits fruits bleus dont eux et le Pere ont vcu 
pendant ces deux mois. 

Nous avons chez les Outaouais trois residences 
ou trois maisons fixes ou Ton vit regulierement, et 
ou les Peres, qui travaillent dans les Missions, se 
retirent de temps en temps pour reprendre haleine. 
La premiere est situe"e au bout de la baie des Puants, 
sous le nom de Mission de Saint- Franjois-Xavier; 
sont attaches a cette maison, le P. Allouez, ce saint 
et veritable missionnaire ; le P. Marquette, dont je 
viens de parler, et le P. Louis Andre, qui fait de 
grands fruits par sa Constance et par son assiduite" 
infatigables. Le P. Silvy a ete envoye cette anne"e 
a leur secours avec un de nos Freres coadjuteurs, 
pour avoir le soin de cette maison en ce qui regarde 
le temporel. Les Peres ne s y arretent presque 
point, etant tous dans les Missions auxquelles ils 
donnent tout leur temps, afin d y etablir solidement 
le Christianisme. 


forty or fifty leagues farther, he would have reached 
the gulf of Mexico. 

Since his return, that Father has remained in the 
country of the Outaouais, that he may be fully pre 
pared to establish Missions among the Illinois, the 
nearest and the most docile of the tribes that he has 
discovered. Should he not return to them this year, 
it will be because we must not abandon those whom 
we have begun to instruct. 

Our other missionaries among the Outaouais labor 
holily and usefully, each in his Mission. Within a 
year, they have baptized more than five hundred 
infidels ; and, this summer, Father Bailloquet alone 
baptized in two months a hundred children and some 
adults, fully one-half of whom are sure of paradise. 
He gathered this harvest while the Savages with 
whom he was were gathering that of certain small 
blue fruits, on which they and the Father lived during 
those two months. 10 

We have among the Outaouais three residences, 
or three permanent dwellings, where we regularly 
live, and to which the Fathers who labor in those 
Missions repair from time to time, to take breath for a 
while. The first is situated at the end of the bay des 
Puants, and is called the Mission of Saint Fra^ois 
Xavier. To this house are attached : Father Allouez, 
that holy and true missionary ; Father Marquette, of 
whom I have just spoken; and Father Louis Andre", 
whose indefatigable constancy and assiduity produce 
abundant fruits. This year, Father Silvy n was sent 
to their assistance, with one of our lay Brethren, 
who was to take charge of that house as regards 
temporal matters. The Fathers hardly ever remain 
there for they are all engaged in the Missions, to 


La seconde maison est pres du lac Huron, a 1 en- 
droit oft se trouve la Mission de Saint- Ignace, et ofc 
sont reunis des Hurons et des Algonquins. Le P. 
Philippe Pierson est charge" des premiers, et s y est 
fort bien pris pour mettre parmi eux le Christianisme 
en honneur; s il persevere comme il a commence", il 
ne se peut rien de mieux. 

La troisieme maison est celle de Sainte- Marie du 
Sault, oft reside habituellement le P. Henri Nouvel, 
sup6rieur de toutes ces Missions; c est un homme de 
vertu, et tout apostolique. Le P. Gabriel Dreuil- 
lettes y demeure aussi ; son grand age et ses infirmi- 
tes ne diminuent rien de son zele. C est par son 
moyen que Dieu a opere grand nombre de mer- 
veilles dans la gu6rison des malades, et autres choses 
extraordinaires, par 1 efficace de 1 eau benite et par 
les merites de saint Fran9ois-Xavier. Le P. Baillo- 
quet se rend aussi en ce lieu de temps en temps; 
mais le plus souvent il demeure avec les Algonquins 
du lac Huron et de Nipissing. C est lui qui, comme 
je 1 ai dit, a ve*cu cet 6t6, pendant deux mois, avec 
plus de mille Sauvages, de petits fruits qu on appelle 
ici des bleuets, qui ne croissent que sur les rochers 
ou terres pierreuses; et pendant ce temps-la, il a 
baptis6 une centaine d enfants au-dessous de deux 
ans, dont une bonne partie 6taient murs pour le ciel. 
Nous avons aussi, a Sainte-Marie, un de nos Freres 
coadjuteurs, qui a soin du temporel de cette maison, 
laquelle a ete brulee une seconde fois par suite d une 
rixe sanglante oh plus de quarante Sauvages se sont 
cruellement ^gorges les uns les autres. C est mer- 
veille que deux des notres qui etaient la n ont point 
6t6 envelopp6s dans cette boucherie. Le diable a 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 71 

which they devote all their time, that they may 
solidly establish Christianity therein. 

The second house is near lake Huron, at the place 
where the Mission of Saint Ignace is situated, where 
Hurons and Algonquins are gathered together. Fa 
ther Philippe Pierson has charge of the former, and 
has done excellent work in bringing Christianity into 
vogue among them ; and if he persevere as he has 
begun, nothing can be better. 

The third house is that of Sainte Marie du Sault, 
where Father Henri Nouvel, the superior of all these 
Missions, habitually resides; he is a virtuous and 
truly apostolic man. Father Gabriel Dreuillettes also 
resides there; his great age and his infirmities do 
not in the least diminish his zeal. Through his in 
strumentality, God has worked a great many wonders 
in the cure of the sick, and in other extraordinary 
things, by the efficacy of holy water and by the 
merits of saint Francis Xavier. Father Bailloquet 
also proceeds there, from time to time ; but, as a rule, 
he lives with the Algonquins of lakes Huron and 
Nipissing. He it is who, as I have related, lived for 
two months this summer, with more than a thousand 
Savages, on small fruits here called bluets [ blueber 
ries "], which grow only on rocks or in rocky soil ; and 
during that time he baptized a hundred children 
under two years of age, a goodly number of whom 
were ripe for heaven. We have also at Sainte 
Marie one of our lay Brethren; he has temporal 
charge of that house, which was burned a second 
time in consequence of a sanguinary affray, in which 
over forty Savages cruelly slaughtered one another. 
It is a wonder that two of ours, who were there, 
were not included in that butchery. The devil 


suscite" ce malheur pour renverser cette Mission, ou 
du moins pour empecher le bien qui s y faisait; mais 
j espere que tout tournera a sa confusion. 

Apres avoir vu ce qui s est fait au Nord et au Midi, 
nous pouvons jeter les yeux sur le Levant, je veux 
dire sur 1 Acadie, ou le P. Jean Pierron a hiverne 
pour y assister les Franais, dont le spirituel e"tait 
abandonne depuis longtemps, mais bien plus encore 
pour voir s il y avait moyen d etablir quelques Mis 
sions pour les Sauvages de ces quartiers-la. Pendant 
cet hivernement, il a pris son temps et parcouru 
toute la Nouvelle-Angleterre, la Marilande et la Vir- 
ginie, et n a trouve" partout que desolation et qu abo- 
mination parmi ces he retiques qui ne veulent pas 
meme baptiser les enfants et encore moins les 
adultes. II a rencontre" des personnes de 30 et 40 
ans, et meme jusqu a dix et douze personnes en une 
seule maison, qui n avaient pas re$u le bapteme. II 
a confe re ce sacrement et les autres a peu de per 
sonnes a cause de leur obstination ; il a eu cependant 
le bonheur de preparer un he re tique a faire son 
abjuration. Enfin, il a eu quelques conferences avec 
les ministres de Boston (capitale de la Nouvelle- 
Angleterre), ou il a ete fort estim6, et oti on parle 
encore de lui avec honneur. Quoiqu il fut travesti, 
on se doutait pourtant bien qu il 6tait Je"suite a cause 
de la science peu commune qu il faisait paraitre ; et 
c est pour cela qu il a 6t6 cite" au Parlement; mais il 
n y a point comparu. II a trouv6 dans la Marilande 
deux de nos Peres et un Frere anglais: les Peres 
habilles en gentilshommes, et le Frere en me tayer; 
atissi a-t-il soin d une metairie qui sert a soutenir les 
deux missionnaires. Us travaillent avec succes pour 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 73 

brought about that misfortune, in order to overthrow 
the Mission or, at least, to hinder the good that was 
done in it ; but I trust that everything will turn to 
his confusion. 

After observing what has been done in the North 
and in the South, we may cast our eyes upon the 
East, I mean Acadia, where Father Jean Pierron 
spent the winter. He did so, in order to assist the 
French, whose spiritual welfare had long been neg 
lected ; but still more to ascertain whether it would 
be possible to establish Missions for the Savages 
of that quarter. 12 While wintering there, he took a 
favorable opportunity, and went through the whole 
of New England, Maryland, and Virginia, where he 
found naught but desolation and abomination among 
the heretics, who will not even baptize the children, 
and still less the adults. He saw persons 30 and 40 
years old, and even as many as ten and twelve per 
sons in a single house, who had not received baptism. 
He administered that sacrament and the others to 
but few persons, on account of their obstinacy ; he 
had, however, the happiness of preparing a heretic 
to make his abjuration. Finally, he had some con 
ferences with the ministers of Boston (the capital of 
New England), where he was greatly esteemed, and 
where he is still spoken of with honor. Although 
he was disguised, it was nevertheless suspected that 
he was a Jesuit, owing to the unusual knowledge 
that he displayed. For that reason, he was cited 
before the Parliament, but he did not appear before 
it. In Maryland, he found two of our Fathers and a 
Brother, who are English, the Fathers being dressed 
like gentlemen, and the Brother like a farmer; in 
fact, he has charge of a farm, which serves to support 



la reduction des here"tiques du pays, ou de fait il y a 
beaucoup de catholiques, et entre autres le gouver- 
neur. Comme ces deux Peres ne suffisent pas seuls, 
le P. Pierron s offre volontiers a les aller assister, et 
en meme temps a etablir une Mission parmi les 
Sauvages voisins, dont il sait la langue. Mais cette 
entreprise souffre bien des difficultes et me parait 
impossible, soit parce que c est une Mission qui 
appartient a nos Peres anglais, et ce serait a eux a 
demander eux-memes le secours du P. Pierron, soit 
parce qu elle depend d une autre Assistance et que 
le Pere ne desire pas sortir de celle de France ; soit 
enfin, parce qu il faut un fonds considerable pour 
commencer et continuer ce dessein. Cependant, le 
P. Pierron est retourne en Mission chez les Iroquois 
avec de tres-saintes dispositions; c est un homme de 
grande et rare vertu. 

Puisque nous en sommes aux Iroquois, Votre 
Reverence entendra volontiers un mot des mission- 
naires de ce pays-la. 

Le P. Jacques Bruyas, qui en est le superieur, a 
autant de zele que de prudence. II demeure ordi- 
nairement a Agnie, ou il a eu beaucoup a souffrir de 
la part des Hollandais, voisins de cette bourgade. II 
a meme ete oblige de se cacher pour se derober aux 
mauvais desseins que ces he"re"tiques avaient sur lui. 
Mais il semble que ces oppositions n ont servi qu a 
toucher davantage le cceur des Sauvages qui se con- 
vertissent plus que jamais et dont le plus considerable 
a e"te" baptise* depuis peu et a renonce publiquement 
a ses superstitions. Nous en esperons beaucoup, il 
m a promis qu il va travailler fortement a la conver 
sion de ses compatriotes. 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 75 

the two missionaries. They labor successfully 
for the reduction of the heretics of the country, 
where there are, in truth, many catholics, among 
others the governor. 13 As these two Fathers alone 
do not suffice, Father Pierron cheerfully offers to go 
and assist them, and at the same time to establish a 
Mission among the neighboring Savages, with whose 
language he is familiar. But there are many 
obstacles to this project, which seems to me impos 
sible of execution because it is a Mission belonging 
to our English Fathers, who should themselves ask 
for Father Pierron s aid; because it is within another 
Assistancy, and the Father does not wish to leave 
that of France ; 14 and, finally, because a considerable 
sum is needed to commence and carry out the 
project. Meanwhile, Father Pierron has returned to 
the Mission among the Iroquois, with very holy 
intentions ; he is a man of great and rare virtue. 

Since we are speaking of the Iroquois, Your 
Reverence will be glad to hear a word about the mis 
sionaries of that country. 

Father Jacques Bruyas, the superior, is as zealous 
as he is prudent. He usually resides at Agnie", 
where he has had much to suffer from the Dutch, 
who are the neighbors of that village. He has even 
been compelled to hide, in order to save himself 
from the evil designs which those heretics entertain 
toward him. However, it seems that this opposition 
has served but to touch still more deeply the hearts 
of the Savages, who are being converted in greater 
numbers than ever; and the most notable man 
among them was recently baptized, and publicly 
renounced his superstitions. We expect a great deal 
from him ; he has promised me that he will work 


Dans le bourg le plus proche, qui est Onnei out 
habite le P. Millet a qui Dieu donne une benediction 
toute particuliere, et telle que les Sauvages de ce 
bourg, qui etaient les plus fiers et les plus eloigne"s 
de la Foi, sont devenus les plus traitables, et detnan- 
dent tous a etre Chretiens. On y fait publiquement 
toutes les fonctions du Christianisme, et il y a en 
cela quelque chose de bien surprenant. 

Vient ensuite le bourg d Onnontague, qui a pour 
apotre le P. Jean de Lamberville. C est lui qui s est 
immole si genereusement pour le salut de ces 
Missions, et qui s y emploie avec bien du courage 
et de la Constance. 

Plus loin on rencontre le bourg d Oiogouin, ou 
demeure le P. de Carheil. Ce saint homme est d un 
zele apostolique qui ne trouve pas que ces Sauvages 
correspondent a ses soins ; mais je crois qu il demande 
d eux trop de vertu pour les commencements. S il 
n en sanctifie pas autant qu il voudrait, il est bien 
certain qu il s y sanctifie lui-meme d une bonne fagon, 
aussi bien que les PP. Gamier et Raffeix dans les 
bourgs des Sonnontouans qui sont les plus eloignes 
de nous et qui semblent 1 etre aussi de la Foi. 
Cependant ces deux braves missionnaires ne laissent 
pas de faire bien des conquetes sur 1 enfer. C est a 
eux que le P. Pierron s est alle joindre pour prendre 
soin d une grosse bourgade a laquelle nous n avons 
pas pu pourvoir jusqu a present. Je dois dire ici en 
particulier a V. R. quelque chose de ce Pere qui la 
consolera et qui montre sa grande vertu. Avant que 
de partir pour retourner aux Iroquois, pour lesquels 
il a une repugnance naturelle tres-grande et qu il 
surmonte neanmoins tres-gene reusement, il est venu 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 77 

energetically for the conversion of his countrymen. 

In the nearest village, Onneiout, dwells Father 
Millet, upon whom God confers a most special bless 
ing; and so great is it that the Savages of that 
village, who were the most arrogant and the most 
averse to the Faith, have become the most tractable, 
and all ask to become Christians. All the exercises 
of Christianity are openly practiced, and in this there 
is something indeed astonishing. 

Then comes the village of Onnontagu6 whose 
apostle is Father Jean de Lamberville. He it is who 
so nobly sacrificed himself for the salvation of these 
Missions, and who labors therein with much courage 
and constancy. 

Farther on is the village of Oiogouin, where 
Father de Carheil resides. The apostolic zeal of that 
holy man is such that he does not find that the Sav 
ages respond to his efforts ; but I think that he exacts 
too much virtue from them at the beginning. If he 
does not sanctify as many of them as he would wish, 
it is certain that he sanctifies himself in a proper 
manner. So also do Fathers Gamier and Raffeix in 
the villages of the Sonnontouans, who are the farth 
est from us, and who also seem to be as remote from 
the Faith. Nevertheless, these two brave mission 
aries fail not to win many victories over hell. 
Father Pierron has gone to join them, to take 
charge of a large village for which we have hitherto 
been unable to provide. I must here mention in 
confidence to Your Reverence something about that 
Father, which will console you and which proves 
his great virtue. Before leaving us to return among 
the Iroquois, for whom he has a very great natural 
repugnance, which he very bravely overcomes, he 


me trouver; puis s etant mis a genoux dans mon 
cabinet, la tete nue et les mains jointes, voulant que 
je fusse couvert et assis, il m a demande a faire deux 
vceux : le premier, de ne repliquer jamais quoi que ce 
soit aux ordres de ses superieurs, et de ne rien 
proposer qui y soit contraire ; le second, par lequel 
il s oblige de ne retourner jamais en France, ni de le 
procurer en aucune fa9on. Je ne lui ai pas permis 
le premier, mais bien le second, selon 1 intention de 
1 ob^issance ; ensuite il m a remercie de ce que j avais 
tenu ferme pour le renvoyer aux Iroquois, parce que 
j avais agi en cela centre ses propres sentiments. 

Je ne dois pas omettre de dire quelque chose des 
quartiers de Tadoussac ou travaille, hiver et ete\ le P. 
de Crepieul qui est un veritable apotre. II a fait ici 
sa profession, le jour de I Assomption derniere, ayant 
mieux aime" differer jusqu a ce temps-la que de perdre 
1 occasion d hiverner avec ses chers Sauvages. II 
tombe malade quand je le rappelle ici quelque temps 
pour se reposer, et n est pas plus tot rentre dans les 
travaux de sa mission qu il revient en sante. II m a 
prie de lui permettre d aller lui-meme cette annee 
avec des peuples fort eloignes d ici, nommes les Mis- 
tassins; c est a quoi il se dispose pour le moment, et 
comme il est aussi demande par deux autres nations, 
il ira les instruire pendant 1 ete". 

Nous avons deux autres Eglises pres de nous qui se 
conservent toujours dans leur splendeur premiere, et 
dont la vertu est de tres-bonne odeur. L une est celle 
de la prairie de la Magdeleine pres de Montreal ; la 
ferveur, la piete et les autres vertus chretiennes des 
habitants font 1 admiration des Frangais et des 
Sauvages; et certes, c est chose merveilleuse de voir 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 79 

came to me and, kneeling in my room with bare 
head and clasped hands, desiring me to remain cov 
ered and seated, he asked me for permission to make 
two vows: the first, ever to comply tmquestioningly 
with the orders of his superiors, and never propose 
anything contrary to them ; the second, to bind him 
self never to return to France, or to secure that 
privilege in any way. I would not permit the 
former, but I allowed the latter, in so far as was 
consistent with obedience. He afterward thanked 
me for firmly adhering to my intention of sending 
him among the Iroquois, because in that I had acted 
against his own feelings. 

I must not forget to say something about the 
Tadoussac mission wherein Fatherde Crepieul, who is 
a true apostle, labors summer and winter. He made 
his profession here on last Assumption day, for he 
preferred to postpone it until then, rather than lose 
the opportunity of wintering among his beloved Sav 
ages. He falls ill when I recall him here to rest for 
a little while; and no sooner has he returned to the 
labors of his mission, than he is restored to health. 
He begged me to allow him to go himself this year 
to tribes very distant from here, named Mistassins. 
He is preparing for this at present ; and, as he is 
also asked for by two other tribes, he will go and 
instruct them during the summer. 

We have two other Churches near us, which ever 
preserve their pristine splendor, and whose virtue is 
of the sweetest odor. One is that of la prairie de la 
Magdeleine, near Montreal ; the fervor, piety, and 
other Christian virtues of the inhabitants are the 
admiration of both French and Savages ; and assuredly 
it is a wonderful thing to see how these good neophytes 


comment ces bons neophytes ont su vivre jusqu k 
present dans tine rare innocence. Aussi sont-ils 
gouvernes par le P. Jacques Fremin, que je puis dire 
avec verite* etre tin de nos plus habiles et de nos plus 
saints missionnaires. J ai fait lire dernierement an 
refectoire une relation qu il m a envoye"e sur les 
vertus de ces Sauvages. Cette lecture a tire les 
larmes des yeux de la plupart des notres, tant la piete" 
de ces nouveaux Chretiens est touchante ! 

L autre Eglise est celle des Hurons, pres de 
Quebec, sous la direction du P. Chaumonot qui est 
un parfait missionnaire. Nous achevons d y batir 
pour ces bons Hurons une Eglise sous le nom de 
Notre- Dame de Lorette. Elle est toute semblable a 
celle d ltalie et va devenir un lieu de grande devotion 
en ce pays ; et de fait, on y vient d6ja en pelerinage 
de toutes parts, et on est ravi de voir la sainte camine, 
la fenetre par ou Tange entra, les armoires de la 
Vierge et le reste de ce qui se voit dans la sainte 
maison de Notre-Dame de Lorette en Italie. 

Voilk en peu de mots ce qui regarde l 6tat de nos 
Missions, dans lesquelles il semble que c est assez 
d y etre occupe pour devenir saint, tant les emplois 
en sont apostoliques, et tant aussi sont extraordi- 
naires les graces que Dieu accorde k de si g6nereux 
ouvriers. La vie qu ils menent au-dehors est des 
plus miserables. Imaginez ce que c est que d etre 
toujours avec des barbares dont il faut souffrir mille 
emportements, renferme la plupart du temps dans 
des cabanes ou on est aveugle* parlafume"e; d etre 
expose" h mille dangers, ou des eaux ou de la barbaric 
des Sauvages et de leur ivrognerie ; de vivre de rien, 
pour ainsi dire, et de travailler sans relache; et 

1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 81 

have hitherto lived in rare innocence. In fact, they 
are governed by Father Jacques Fre"min whom I 
may safely call one of our ablest and most saintly 
missionaries. I recently caused to be read aloud in 
the refectory a relation that he sent me, regarding 
the virtues of those Savages. It brought tears to 
the eyes of most of our fathers, so touching is the 
piety of these new Christians. 

The other Church is that of the Hurons near Que 
bec, under the direction of Father Chaumonot, who 
is a perfect missionary. We are finishing the con 
struction of a Church for these good Hurons, under 
the name of Notre Dame de Lorette. It is exactly 
the same as that in Italy, and will become a place of 
great devotion in the country; in fact, the people 
already come to it on pilgrimages from all parts, and 
they are delighted to see the holy chimney, the win 
dow through which the angel entered, the Virgin s 
cupboards, and all that is to be seen in the holy 
house of Our Lady of Loretto in Italy. 

Such, in a few words, is what relates to the state 
of our Missions ; apparently, to be occupied in these 
is to become a saint, so apostolic are their occupa 
tions, and so extraordinary also the favors that God 
grants to laborers so courageous. The life that they 
lead is outwardly most wretched. Imagine what it 
is to be always with barbarians, whose numberless 
fits of anger one must endure ; to be shut up, most of 
the time, in cabins where one s eyes are blinded by 
smoke ; to be exposed to a thousand dangers, either 
from the waters, or from the barbarity or drunken 
ness of the Savages ; to live on nothing, as it were, 
and toil without cessation. Yet, notwithstanding all 
this, the greatest displeasure that I could cause any 


nonobstant tout cela, le plus grand deplaisir que je 
puisse faire a qui que ce soit d entre eux, serait de 
le rappeler ici pour y vivre un peu plus commode"- 
ment; et tous les souhaits de ceux qui sont ici sont 
d aller participer aux travaux et aux merites de ces 
apotres. Je recommande les uns et les autres, et 
moi par-dessus tous, aux Saints Sacrifices de Votre 
Re"ve"rence, e"tant 

Votre tres-humble et tres-obe"issant . . . 


1673-77] DABLON TO PINETTE 83 

one of them would be to recall him here, to live a 
little more comfortably; while the sole desire of 
those who are here is to go and share the labors and 
the merits of those apostles. I recommend every 
one of them, and above all myself, to the Holy 
Sacrifices of Your Reverence ; and I am 

Your very humble and very obedient . . . 




1673 - 

CXXXVI. Le premier Voyage qu a fait le P. Marquette 
vers le nouueau Mexique ; [Baye des 
Puants, 1674] 

CXXXVII. Journal incomplet, adresse au R. P. Dablon ; 
n.p., [1675] 

CXXXVIII. Recit du second voyage et de la mort du P. 
Jacques Marquette ; [Quebec, 1677] 

SOURCES : These documents are published by us from 
the original MSS. by Marquette and Dablon, which rest in the 
archives of St. Mary s College, Montreal. 


Le premier Voyage qu a fait Le P. Marquette 

vers le nouueau Mexique & Comment 

s en est forme le defsein. 

IL y auoit longtemps que le Pere premeditoit Cette 
Entreprise, porte" d un tres ardent desir d es- 
tendre le Royaume de J. Ch. et de le faire Con- 
noistre et adorer par tons les peuples de ce pays. II 
se voioit Comme a la porte de ces notmelles Nations, 
lorsque de"s l anne"e 1670 il trauailloit en la Mifsion 
de la pointe du s 1 . Esprit qui est a I extremite" du lac 
superieur aux outaoiiacs, il voioit mesme quelquefois 
plusieurs, de ces nouueaux peuples, desquels il pre- 
noit toutes les Connoissances qu il pouuoit, c est ce qui 
luy a fait faire plusieurs efforts pour commencer cette 
entreprise, mais tousiour inutilement, et mesme il 
auoit perdu 1 esperance d en venir about lorsque Dieu 
luy en fit naistre cette occasion. 

En L annee 1673 M r . Le Compte De Frontenac 
Nostre Gouuerneur, et M r . Talon alors Nostre Inten- 
dant, Connoissant L Importance de cette decouuerte, 
soit pour chercher vn passage d icy jusqua la mer de 
la Chine, par la riuiere qui se de"charge a la Mer 
Vermeille ou Californie, soit qu on voulu s asseurer 
de ce qu on a dit du depuis, touchant les 2 Royaumes 
le Theguai o Et de Quiuira, du Canada, 
ou Ton tient que les mines d or sont abondantes, ces 
Messieurs, dis-ie, nommerent en mesme temps pour 
Cette entreprise Le Sieur Jolyet quils jugerent tres 


om Revue de Ge 


Of the first Voyage made by Father Marquette 

toward new Mexico, and How the 

idea thereof was conceived. 

THE Father had long premeditated This Under 
taking, influenced by a most ardent desire to 
extend the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and to 
make him Known and adored by all the peoples of 
that country. He saw himself, As it were, at the 
door of these new Nations when, as early as the year 
1670, he was laboring in the Mission at the point of 
st. Esprit, at the extremity of lake superior, among 
the outaouacs; he even saw occasionally various per 
sons belonging to these new peoples, from whom he 
obtained all the Information that he could. This 
induced him to make several efforts to commence this 
undertaking, but ever in vain ; and he even lost all 
hope of succeeding therein, when God brought about 
for him the following opportunity. 

In The year 1673, Monsieur The Count De Fron- 
tenac, Our Governor, and Monsieur Talon, then Our 
Intendant, Recognizing The Importance of this 
discovery, either that they might seek a passage 
from here to the sea of China, by the river that 
discharges into the Vermillion, or California Sea; or 
because they desired to verify what has for some 
time been said concerning the 2 Kingdoms of The- 
guaio And Quiuira, which Border on Canada, and 
in which numerous gold mines are reported to exist, 
these Gentlemen, I say, appointed at the same time 


propres pour vn si grand dessein, estant bien aise 
que Le P. Marquette fut de la partie. 

II ne se tromperent pas dans le choix quils firent 
du S r . Jolyet, Car c estoit un jeune homme natif de 
ce pays, qui a pour vn tel dessein tous les aduantages 
qu on peut souhaiter; II a L experience, et La 
Connoissance des Langues du Pays des Outaoiiacs, ou 
il a passe" plusieurs anne"es, il a la Conduitte et la 
sagesse qui sont les principales parties pour faire 
reussir vn voyage egalement dangereux et difficile. 
Enfin il a le Courage pour ne rien apprehender, ou 
tout est a Craindre, aussi a-t-il remply L attente 
qu on auoit de luy, et si apres auoir passe mille sortes 
de dangers, il ne fut venu malheureusement faire 
nauffrage au port, son Canot ayant tourne au dessous 
du sault de s 1 . Loiiys proche de Montreal, ou il a 
perdu et ses homines et ses papiers, et d ou il n a 
eschap6 que par vne espece de Miracle, il ne laissoit 
rien a souhaiter au succez de son Voyage. 





VIERGE, que I auois tousjour Inuoque"e depuisque 
je suis en ce pays des outaoiiacs, pour obtenir de Dieu 
la grace de pouuoir visiter les Nations qui sont sur 
la Riuiere de Missis[i]pi, fut justement Celuy auquel 
arriua M r . Jollyet auec les ordres de M r . le Comte de 
frontenac Nostre Gouuerneur et de M r . Talon Nostre 
Intendant, pour faire auec moy Cette decouuerte. Je 
fus d autant plus rauy de Cette bonne nouuelle, que 
je voiois que mes desseins alloient 6tre accomplis, et 


for This undertaking Sieur Jolyet, whom they 
considered very fit for so great an enterprise; and 
they were well pleased that Father Marquette should 
be of the party. 15 

They were not mistaken in the choice that they 
made of Sieur Jolyet, For he is a young man, born 
in this country, who possesses all the qualifications 
that could be desired for such an undertaking. He 
has experience and Knows the Languages spoken in 
the Country of the Outaouacs, where he has passed 
several years. He possesses Tact and prudence, 
which are the chief qualities necessary for the 
success of a voyage as dangerous as it is difficult. 
Finally, he has the Courage to dread nothing where 
everything is to be Feared. Consequently, he has 
fulfilled all The expectations entertained of him ; and 
if, after having passed through a thousand dangers, 
he had not unfortunately been wrecked in the very 
harbor, his Canoe having upset below sault st. Louys, 
near Montreal, where he lost both his men and his 
papers, and whence he escaped only by a sort of 
Miracle, nothing would have been left to be desired 
in the success of his Voyage. 





BLESSED VIRGIN whom I have always Invoked 
since I have been in this country of the outaouacs, 
to obtain from God the grace of being able to visit 
the Nations who dwell along the Missisipi River 
was precisely the Day on which Monsieur Jollyet 


que je me trouuois dans tine heureuse necessity d ex- 
poser ma vie pour le salut de tous ces peuples, et parti- 
culierement pour les Ilinois qui m auoient prie auec 
beaucoup d instance lorsque J estois a la pointe du s 1 . 
Esprit de leur porter chez Eux la parole de Dieu. 

Nous ne fusmes pas long- temps a preparer tout 
nostre Equippage, quoy que nous nous Engageas- 
sions en vn voyage dont nous ne pouuions pas preuoir 
la dure"e; Du Bled D Inde auec quelque viande bou- 
cane"e, furent toutes nos prouisions, auec lesqu elles 
nous nous Embarquammes sur 2 Canotz d Ecorce, 
M r . Jollyet et moy, auec 5 hommes, bien resolus a 
tout faire et a tout souffrir pour une si glorieuse 

Ce fut done Le 17*. jour de may 1673 que nous 
partimes de la Mission de s 1 . Ignace a Michilimakinac, 
ou j estois pour Lors; La Joye que nous auions d etre 
choisis pour Cette Expedition, animoit nos Courages 
et nous rendoit agreables les peines que nous auions 
a ramer depuis le matin jusqu au soir; et parceque 
Nous allions chercher des pays Inconnus, Nous 
apportammes toutes les precautions que nous pumes, 
affinque si nostre Entreprise estoit hazardeuse elle ne 
fut pas temeraire ; pour ce suject nous primes toutes 
les Connoissances que nous pumes des sauuages qui 
auoient frequente ces endroicts la, et mesme nous 
tracames sur leur raport une Carte de tout ce Nou- 
ueau pays; nous y fimes marquer les riuieres, sur 
lesquelles nous deuions nauiger, les noms des peuples 
et des lieux par lesquels nous deuions passer, le 
Cours de la grande Riuiere, et quels rund, deuions 
tenir quand nous y serions. 

Sur tout je mis nostre voyage soubs la protection 
de la S te . Vierge Immacule e, luy promettant, que si 


arrived with orders from Monsieur the Count de 
frontenac, Our Governor, and Monsieur Talon, Our 
Intendant, to accomplish This discovery with me. 
I was all the more delighted at This good news, 
since I saw that my plans were about to be accom 
plished; and since I found myself in the blessed 
necessity of exposing my life for the salvation of all 
these peoples, and especially of the Ilinois, who 
had very urgently entreated me, when I was at the 
point of st. Esprit, to carry the word of God to Their 

We were not long in preparing all our Equipment, 
although we were about to Begin a voyage, the dura 
tion of which we could not foresee. Indian Corn, 
with some smoked meat, constituted all our provi 
sions; with these we Embarked Monsieur Jollyet 
and myself, with 5 men in 2 Bark Canoes, fully 
resolved to do and suffer everything for so glorious 
an Undertaking. 

Accordingly, on The i/th day of may, 1673, we 
started from the Mission of st. Ignace at Michili- 
makinac, where I Then was. The Joy that we felt 
at being selected for This Expedition animated our 
Courage, and rendered the labor of paddling from 
morning to night agreeable to us. And because We 
were going to seek Unknown countries, We took 
every precaution in our power, so that, if our Under 
taking were hazardous, it should not be foolhardy. 
To that end, we obtained all the Information that 
we could from the savages who had frequented those 
regions; and we even traced out from their reports 
a Map of the whole of that New country; on it 
we indicated the rivers which we were to navigate, 
the names of the peoples and of the places through 


elle nous faisoit la grace de de"couurir la grande 
Riuiere, Je luy donnerois Le Nom de la Conception 
et que je ferois aussi porter ce nom a la premiere 
Mission que j etablyrois chez Ces Nouueaux peuples, 
ce que jay fait de vray chez les Ilinois. 






AUEC toutes ces precautions nous faisons Joiier 
Joyeusement les auirons, sur vne partie du Lac 
huron et Celuy des Ilinois, et dans la baye des 

La premiere Nation que nous rencontrames, fut 
Celle de la folle auoine, J entray dans Leur riuiere, 
pour aller visiter ces peuples ausquels nous auons 
presche" L Euangile depuis plusieurs annees, aussi 
se trouve-t-il parmy Eux plusieurs bons chrestiens. 

La folle auoine dont ils portent le nom, parcequelle 
se trouve sur leurs terres est une sorte d herbe qui 
croit naturellement dans les petites Riuieres dont le 
fond est de vase, est dans les Lieux Marescageux; 
elle est bien semblable a la folle auoine qui Croit 
parmy nos bleds. Les epics sont sur des tuyeaux 
noiie"s d Espace en Espace, ils sortent de 1 Eau vers 
le mois de Juin, et vont tousjour montant jusqu a ce 
qu ils surnagent de deux pieds Enuiron, Le grain 
n est pas plus gros que Celuy de nos auoines, mais il 
est vne fois plus long, aussi La farine en est t-elle 
bien plus abondante. Voicy Comme les Sauuages la 
Cueillent et la preparent pour la manger. Dans Le 
mois de Septembre qui est le temps propre pour 

1673-77] MARQ UETTE 5 FIRST VO YA GE 93 

which we were to pass, the Course of the great 
River, and the direction we were to follow when 
we reached it. 

Above all, I placed our voyage under the protec 
tion of the Blessed Virgin Immaculate, promising 
her that, if she granted us the favor of discovering 
the great River, I would give it The Name of the 
Conception, and that I would also make the first 
Mission that I should establish among Those New 
peoples, bear the same name. This I have actually 
done, among the Ilinois. 16 






WITH all these precautions, we Joyfully Plied our 
paddles on a portion of Lake huron, on That 
of the Ilinois and on the bay des Puants. 

The first Nation that we came to was That of the 
folle avoine. I entered Their river, to go and visit 
these peoples to whom we have preached The Gospel 
for several years, in consequence of which, there 
are several good Christians among Them. 

The wild oat, whose name they bear because it is 
found in their country, is a sort of grass, which 
grows naturally in the small Rivers with muddy 
bottoms, and in Swampy Places. It greatly resem 
bles the wild oats that Grow amid our wheat. The 
ears grow upon hollow stems, jointed at Intervals; 
they emerge from the Water about the month of 
June, and continue growing until they rise About 
two feet above it. The grain is not larger than That 


Cette recolte, ils vont en Canot autrauers de Ces 
champs de folle auoine, ils en secoiient les Epics de 
part et d autre dans le Canot, a mesure quils auancent 
le grain tombe aisement s il est meur, et En pen de 
temps ils en font leur prouision : Mais pour le net- 
toyer de la paille et le depouiller d une pellicule dans 
laquelle il est Enferme ; ils le mettent secher a la 
fumee; sur vn gril de bois soubs lequel ils entre- 
tiennent vn petit feu, pendant quelques Jours, Et 
lorsque L auoine est bien seche, ils la mettent dans 
une Peau en forme de pouche, Laquelle ils enfoncent 
dans vn trou fait a Ce dessein en terre, puis ils 1 a 
pillent auec les pieds, tant et si fortement que La 
grain s estant separe* de la paille, ils le vannent tres 
aisement, apres quoy ils le pillent pour le reduire en 
farine, ou mesme sans estre pille" ils le font Cuire 
dans 1 eau, qu ils assaisonnent auec de la graisse, et 
de Cette fa$on on trouue La folle auoine presque 
aussi delicate, qu est le ris, quand on n y mette pas 
de meillieur assaisonnement. 

Je racontay a ces peuples de la folle auoine, Le 
dessein que jauois d aller decouurir Ces nations 
Esloigne"es pour les pouuoir Instruire des Mysteres 
de Nostre S te . Religion ; Ils en furent Extremement 
surpris, et firent tous leur possible pour m en dissiia- 
der; Ils me representerent que je rencontrerois des 
Nations qui ne pardonnent jamais aux Estrangers 
ausqu els ils Cassent La teste sans aucun sujet; que 
La guerre qui estoit allume e Entre Diuers peuples 
qui estoient sur nostre Route, nous Exposoit a vn 
autre danger manifeste d estre tuez par les bandes 
de Guerriers qui sont tousjours en Campagne; que 
la grande Riuiere est tres dangereuse, quand on n en 
scait pas les Endroictz difficiles, qu elle estoit pleine 


of our oats, but it is twice as long, and The meal 
therefrom is much more abundant. /The Savages 
Gather and prepare it for food as Follows. In The 
month of September, which is the suitable time for 
The harvest, they go in Canoes through These fields 
of wild oats ; they shake its Ears into the Canoe, on 
both sides, as they pass through. The grain falls 
out easily, if it be ripe, and they obtain their supply 
In a short time. But, in order to clean it from the 
straw, and to remove it from a husk in which it is 
Enclosed, they dry it in the smoke, upon a wooden 
grating, under which they maintain a slow fire for 
some Days. When The oats are thoroughly dry, 
they put them in a Skin made into a bag, thrust It 
into a hole dug in the ground for This purpose, and 
tread it with their feet so long and so vigorously 
that The grain separates from the straw, and is very 
easily winnowed. After this, they pound it to 
reduce it to flour, or even, without pounding it, 
they Boil it in water, and season it with fat. Cooked 
in This fashion, The wild oats have almost as deli 
cate a taste as rice has when no better seasoning is 

I told these peoples of the folle avoine of My 
design to go and discover Those Remote nations, in 
order to Teach them the Mysteries of Our Holy 
Religion. They were Greatly surprised to hear it, 
and did their best to dissuade me. They repre 
sented to me that I would meet Nations who never 
show mercy to Strangers, but Break Their heads with 
out any cause; and that war was kindled Between 
Various peoples who dwelt upon our Route, which 
Exposed us to the further manifest danger of being 
killed by the bands of Warriors who are ever in the 



de monstres effroyables, qui deuoroient les hommes et 
les Canotz tout Ensemble; qu il y a mesme vn d6mon 
qu on entend de fort loing qui en ferme le passage 
et qui abysme ceux qui osent en approcher, Enfin que 
les Chaleurs sont si excessiues En ces pays La 
qu elles nous Causeroient La mort Infailliblement. 

Je les remerciay de ces bons aduis qu ils me don- 
noit, mais je leurs dis que je ne pouuois pas les 
suiure, puis qu il s agissoit du salut des ames pour 
lesquelles ie serois rauy de donner ma vie, que je 
me moquois de ce demon pretendu, que nous nous 
deffenderions bien de ces monstres marins, et qu ati 
reste Nous Nous tienderions sur nos gardes pour 
euiter les autres dangers donts ils nous menaoient. 
Apres les auoir fait prier Dieu et leur auoir donne" 
quelque Instruction, Je me separay d eux, et nous 
estant Embarquez sur nos Canotz, Nous arriuames 
peu de temps apres dans le fond de la Baye des 
puantz, ou nos Peres trauaillent utilement a la 
Conuersion de ces peuples, en ayant baptise* plus de 
deux mille depuis qu ils y sont. 

Cette baye porte vn Nom qui n a pas une si mau- 
uaise signification en la langue des sauuages, Car ils 
1 appellent plustost la baye sallee que la Baye des 
Puans, quoyque parmy Eux ce soit presque le mesme ; 
& c est aussi Le nom qu ils donnent a la Mer; 
Ce qui nous a fait faire de tres exactes recherches 
pour decouurir s il n y auoit pas en Ces quartiers 
quelques fontaines d Eau saline, Comme il y en a 
parmy les hiroquois; mais nous n en auons point 
trouue. Nous jugeons done qu on luy a donne* Ce 
nom a cause de quantite" de vase et de Boiie qui 
s y rencontre, d ou s esleuent Continuellement de 
meschantes vapeurs qui y Causent les plus grands 


Field. They also said that the great River was very 
dangerous, when one does not know the difficult 
Places ; that it was full of horrible monsters, which 
devoured men and Canoes Together ; that there was 
even a demon, who was heard from a great distance, 
who barred the way, and swallowed up all who ven 
tured to approach him ; Finally that the Heat was so 
excessive In those countries that it would Inevitably 
Cause Our death. 

I thanked them for the good advice that they gave 
me, but told them that I could not follow it, because 
the salvation of souls was at stake, for which I would 
be delighted to give my life ; that I scoffed at the 
alleged demon; that we would easily defend our 
selves against those marine monsters ; and, moreover, 
that We would be on our guard to avoid the other 
dangers with which they threatened us. After mak 
ing them pray to God, and giving them some Instruc 
tion, I separated from them. Embarking then in 
our Canoes, We arrived shortly afterward at the bot 
tom of the Bay des puantz, where our Fathers labor 
successfully for the Conversion of these peoples, over 
two thousand of whom they have baptized while 
they have been there. 

This bay bears a Name which has a meaning not 
so offensive in the language of the savages; For they 
call it la baye saltte ["salt bay"] rather than 
Bay des Puans, although with Them this is almost 
the same and this is also The name which they give 
to the Sea. This led us to make very careful re 
searches to ascertain whether there were not some 
salt- Water springs in This quarter, As there are 
among the hiroquois, but we found none. We con 
clude, therefore, that This name has been given to 


et les plus Continuels Tonnerres, que jaye iamais 

La Baye a enuiron trente lieues de profondeur et 
huict de large en son Commencement; elle va tous- 
jour se retrecissant jusques dans le fond, on il est 
ais6 de remarquer la maree qui a son flux et reflux 
reg!6 presque Comme Celuy de la Mer. Ce n est 
pas icy le lieu d examiner si ce sont les vrayes ma- 
re"es, si elles sont Gausses par les ventz ou par qu el- 
qu autre principe, s il y a des ventz qui sont Les 
auantcoureurs de la Lune et attachez a sa suitte les- 
quels par consequent agitent le lac et luy donnent 
Comme son flux et reflux toutes les fois que la Lune 
monte sur 1 horison. Ce que je peux dire de Certain 
est que quand 1 eau est bien Calme, on la voit aisement 
monter et descendre suivant le Cours de la lune, quoy- 
que je ne nie pas que Ce mouuement ne puisse estre 
Cause" par les Ventz qui sont bien Eloignez, et qui 
pesant sur le milieu du lac font que les bords Croissent 
et decroissent de la fagon qui paroit a nos yeux. 

Nous quittames Cette baye pour entrer dans la 
riuiere qui s y de*charge; elle est tres belle en son 
Emboucheure, et coule doucement, elle est pleine 
D outardes, de Canards de Cercelles et dautres 
oyseaux qui y sont attirez par la folle auoine, dont 
ils sont fort friants, mais quand on a vn peu auance" 
dans cette riuiere, on la trouue tres difficile, tant a 
cause des Courants que des Roches affile es, qui Coup- 
pent les Canotz et les pieds de Ceux qui sont obliges 
de les traisner, sur tout quand les Eaux sont basses. 
Nous franchimes pourtant heureusement Ces rapides 
et en approchant de Machkoutens la Nation du feu, 
jeu la Curiosit6 de boire des Eaux mineralles de la 
Riuiere qui n est pas Loing de Cette bourgade, Je 


it on account of the quantity of mire and Mud which 
is seen there, whence noisome vapors Constantly 
arise, Causing the loudest and most Continual Thun 
der that I have ever heard. 

The Bay is about thirty leagues in depth and eight 
in width at its Mouth ; it narrows gradually to the 
bottom, where it is easy to observe a tide which has 
its regular ebb and flow, almost Like That of the 
Sea. This is not the place to inquire whether these 
are real tides; whether they are Due to the wind, or 
to some other cause; whether there are winds, The 
precursors of the Moon and attached to her suite, 
which consequently agitate the lake and give it an 
apparent ebb and flow whenever the Moon ascends 
above the horizon. What I can Positively state is, 
that, when the water is very Calm, it is easy to 
observe it rising and falling according to the Course 
of the moon ; although I do not deny that This move 
ment may be Caused by very Remote Winds, which, 
pressing on the middle of the lake, cause the edges 
to Rise and fall in the manner which is visible to our 
eyes. 17 

We left This bay to enter the river that discharges 
into it ; it is very beautiful at its Mouth, and flows 
gently; it is full Of bustards, Ducks, Teal, and other 
birds, attracted thither by the wild oats, of which 
they are very fond. But, after ascending the river a 
short distance, it becomes very difficult of passage, 
on account of both the Currents and the sharp Rocks, 
which Cut the Canoes and the feet of Those who are 
obliged to drag them, especially when the Waters 
are low. Nevertheless, we successfully passed Those 
rapids; and on approaching Machkoutens, the fire 
Nation, I had the Curiosity to drink the mineral 


pris aussi le temps de reconnoistre vn simple qu un 
sauuage qui en scait le secret a enseigne" au P. 
Alloiies auec beaucoup de Ceremonies, Sa racine sert 
Centre la morsure des serpents, Dieu ayant voulu 
donner ce remede Centre vn venin qui est tres fre 
quent en ces pays : Elle est fort chaude et elle a vn 
goust de poudre quand on 1 escrase sous la dent ; il 
faut la mascher et la mettre sur la piquure du ser 
pent, qui en a vne si grande horreur; qu il s enfuit 
mesme de Celuy qui s en est frotte, elle produit plu- 
sieures tiges hautes d un pied, dont la feuille est un 
peu longue et la fleur blanche et beaucoup semblable 
a La giroflee. J en mis dans mon Canot, pour 1 exa- 
miner a loisir, pendant que nous auan9ions tousjour 
vers Maskoutens, ou nous arriuames Le ? e . de Juin. 






Nous voicy rendus a Maskoutens, ce Mot en Al 
gonquin peut signifier Nation du feu, aussi est 
ce le nom qu on luy a donne; C est icy le terme des 
decouuertes qu on fait les franjois, Car ils n ont point 
encor passe plus auant. 

Ce Bourg est Compose" de trois sortes de Nations 
qui s y sont ramasse"es, Des Miamis, des Maskoutens, 
et des Kikabous les premiers sont les plus ciuils, les 
plus liberaux, et les mieux faitz, ils portent deux 
longues moustaches sur les oreilles, qui leurs donnent 
bonne grace, ils passent pour les guerriers et font 
rarement des partis sans succez ; ils sont fort dociles, 


Waters of the River that is not Far from That vil 
lage. I also took time to look for a medicinal plant 
which a savage, who knows its secret, showed to 
Father Alloues with many Ceremonies. Its root is 
employed to Counteract snake-bites, God having been 
pleased to give this antidote Against a poison which 
is very common in these countries. It is very pun 
gent, and tastes like powder when crushed with the 
teeth; it must be masticated and placed upon the 
bite inflicted by the snake. The reptile has so great 
a horror of it that it even flees from a Person who 
has rubbed himself with it. The plant bears several 
stalks, a foot high, with rather long leaves; and a 
white flower, which greatly resembles The wall 
flower. 18 I put some in my Canoe, in order to examine 
it at leisure while we continued to advance toward 
Maskoutens, where we arrived on The 7th of 


HERE we are at Maskoutens. This Word may, in 
Algonquin, mean " the fire Nation," which, 
indeed, is the name given to this tribe. Here is the 
limit of the discoveries which the french have made, 
For they have not yet gone any farther. 

This Village Consists of three Nations who have 
gathered there Miamis, Maskoutens, and Kikabous. 
The former are the most civil, the most liberal, and 
the most shapely. They wear two long locks over 
their ears, which give them a pleasing appearance. 


ils escoutetit paisiblement Ce qu on Leur dit, & ont 
paru si auides d Entendre Le P. Alloiies quand il les 
Instruisoit, qu ils Luy donnoient peu de repos, mesme 
pendant la nuict. Les Maskoutens et les KiKabous 
sont plus grossiers et semblent estre des paysantz en 
Comparaison des autres. Comme les Escorces a faire 
des Cabannes sont rares en ce pays la, Ils se seruent 
de Jones qui Leur tiennent lieu de murailles et de 
Couuertures, mais qui ne les deffendent pas beaucoup 
des vents, et bien moins des pluye s quand elles 
tombent en abondance. La Commodity de ces sortes 
de Cabannes est qu ils Les mettent en pacquetz et 
les portent aise ment ou ils veulent pendant Le temps 
de leur chasse. 

Lorsque Je les visitay, je fus extreme ment Console" 
de veoir vne belle Croix planted au milieu du bourg 
et orne"e de plusieurs peaux blanches, de Ceintures 
rouges, d arcs et de, que ces bonnes gens 
auoient offertz au grand Manitou, (C est le nom qu ils 
donnent a Dieu) pour le remercier de ce qu il auoit 
eu pitie" D Eux pendant L hyuer, Leur donnant une 
chasse abondante, Lorsqu ils apprehendoient Le plus 
La famine. 

Je pris plaisir de veoir la situation de cette bour- 
gade, Elle est belle et bien diuertissante, Car d une 
Eminence, sur la quelle elle est place"e on d6couure de 
toutes parts des prairies a perte de veue, partage"es par 
des bocages, ou par des bois de haute f utaye : La terre 
y est tres bonne, et rend beaucoup de bled d inde, Les 
sauuages ramassent quantite de prunes et de raisins 
dont on pourroit faire beaucoup de vin si L on vouloit. 

Nous ne fusmes pas plustost arriue"z que nous assem- 
blames les anciens M r . Jollyet et moy, il leur dit qu il 


They are regarded as warriors, and rarely undertake 
expeditions without being successful. They are 
very docile, and listen quietly to What is said to 
Them; and they appeared so eager to Hear Father 
Alloues when he Instructed them that they gave Him 
but little rest, even during the night. The Maskou- 
tens and Kikabous are ruder, and seem peasants in 
Comparison with the others. As Bark for making 
Cabins is scarce in this country, They use Rushes; 
these serve Them for making walls and Roofs, but do 
not afford them much protection against the winds, 
and still less against the rains when they fall abun 
dantly. The Advantage of Cabins of this kind is, 
that they make packages of Them, and easily trans 
port them wherever they wish, while they are 

When I visited them, I was greatly Consoled at 
seeing a handsome Cross erected in the middle of the 
village, and adorned with many white skins, red 
Belts, and bows and arrows, which these good people 
had offered to the great Manitou (This is the name 
which they give to God). They did this to thank him 
for having had pity On Them during The winter, by 
giving Them an abundance of game When they 
Most dreaded famine. 19 

I took pleasure in observing the situation of this 
village. It is beautiful and very pleasing; For, from 
an Eminence upon which it is placed, one beholds 
on every side prairies, extending farther than the 
eye can see, interspersed with groves or with lofty 
trees. The soil is very fertile, and yields much 
indian corn. The savages gather quantities of plums 
and grapes, wherewith much wine could be made, 
if desired. 


estoit enuoy6 de la part de Mons r . Nostre Gouuer- 
neur pour de"couurir de Nouueaus pays, et moy de la 
part de Dieu pour les Esclairer des lumieres du s*. 
Euangile, qu au reste Le Maistre souuerain de nos 
vies vottloit estre connu de toutes les Nations, et 
que pour obeir a ses volontes, je ne craignois pas la 
mort a laquelle je m exposois dans des voyages si 
perilleux. Que nous auions besoin de deux guides 
pour nous mettre dans nostre route; Nous leur 
fimes un present, en les priant de nous les accorder, 
ce qu ils firent tres Ciuilement et mesme voulurent 
aussi nous parler par vn present qui fut une Nate 
pour nous seruir de lit pendant tout nostre voyage. 

Le lendemain qui fut le dixieme de Juin, deux 
Miamis qu on nous donna pour guides s embarque- 
rent auec nous, a la veiie d un grand monde, qui ne 
pouuoit assez s estonner, de veoir sept fran9ois, seuls, 
et dans deux Canotz oser entreprendre une Expedi 
tion si extresordinaire et si hazardeuse. 

Nous scauions qua trois lieues de MasKoutens estoit 
vne Riuiere qui se decharge dans Missisipi; Nous 
scauions encor que le rund de vent que nous deuions 
tenir pour y arriuer estoit L ouest soroiiest mais le 
chemin est partage de tant de marais et de petitz 
lacs, qu il est aise de s y e"garer, d autant plus que la 
Riuiere qui y me ne est si chargee de folle auoine, 
qu on a peine a en raconnoistre le Canal, C est en 
quoy nous auions bien besoin de nos deux guides, 
aussi nous Conduisirent-ils heureusement jusque vn 
portage de 2700 pas, et nous aiderent a transporter 
nos Canotz pour entrer dans Cette riuiere, apres quoy 
ils s en retournerent, nous laissant seuls en ce pays 
Inconnu, entre les mains de la prouidence. 


No sooner had we arrived than we, Monsieur 
Jollyet and I, assembled the elders together; and 
he told them that he was sent by Monsieur Our 
Governor to discover New countries, while I was sent 
by God to Illumine them with the light of the holy 
Gospel. He told them that, moreover, The sov 
ereign Master of our lives wished to be known by all 
the Nations; and that in obeying his will I feared 
not the death to which I exposed myself in voyages 
so perilous. He informed them that we needed two- 
guides to show us the way ; and We gave them a 
present, by it asking them to grant us the guides. 
To this they very Civilly consented; and they also 
spoke to us by means of a present, consisting of a 
Mat to serve us as a bed during the whole of our 

On the following day, the tenth of June, twa 
Miamis who were given us as guides embarked with 
us, in the sight of a great crowd, who could not suffi 
ciently express their astonishment at the sight of 
seven frenchmen, alone and in two Canoes, daring to- 
undertake so extraordinary and so hazardous an 

We knew that, at three leagues from Maskoutens, 
was a River which discharged into Missisipi. We 
knew also that the direction we were to follow in 
order to reach it was west-southwesterly. But the 
road is broken by so many swamps and small lakes 
that it is easy to lose one s way, especially as the 
River leading thither is so full of wild oats that it is 
difficult to find the Channel. For this reason we 
greatly needed our two guides, who safely Conducted 
us to a portage of 2,700 paces, and helped us to 
transport our Canoes to enter That river; after 


Nous quittons done les Eaux qui vont jusqtta Que- 
beq a 4 ou 500 Lieue s d icy pour prendre Celles qui 
nous Conduiront desormais dans des terres estran- 
geres. auant que de nous y embarquer, nous Com- 
men9ames tous ensemble une nouuelle deuotion a la 
s te . Vierge Immaculee que nous pratiquames tous les 
jours, luy addressant des prieres particuliers pour 
mettre sous sa protection, et nos personnes et le 
succez de nostre voyage, et apres nous estre encou 
rages les vns les autres nous tnontons en Canot. 

La Riuiere sur laquelle nous nous embarquames 
s appelle MesKousing, elle est fort large, son fond 
est du sable, qui fait diuerses battures lesquelles 
rendent cette nauigation tres difficile, elle est pleine 
d Isles Couuertes de Vignes ; sur les bords parroissent 
de bonnes terres, entremesle es de bois de prairies et 
de Costeaux, on y voit des chesnes, des Noiers, des 
bois blancs, et une autre espece d arbres dontz les 
branches sont arme es de longues espines. Nous 
n auons veu ny gibier, ny poisson, mais bien des 
cheureilz et des vaches en assez grande quantite", 
nostre Route estoit au suroiiest et apres auoir nauige 
enuiron 30 lieues, nous apperceumes un endroit qui 
auoit toutes les apparences de mine de fer, et de fait 
vn de nous qui en a veu autref ois, assure que Celle que 
Nous auons trouue"e est fort bonne et tres abondante, 
elle est Couuerte de trois pieds de bonne terre, assez 
proche d une chaine de rocher, dont le bas est plein 
de fort beau bois, apres 40 lieues sur Cette mesme 
route, nous arriuons a 1 embouchure de nostre Riuiere 
et nous trouuant a 42 degrez et demy D esleuation, 
Nous entrons heureusement dans Missisipi Le 17*. 
Juin auec vne Joye que je ne peux pas Expliquer. 


which they returned home, leaving us alone in this 
Unknown country, in the hands of providence. 20 

Thus we left the Waters flowing to Quebeq, 4 or 
500 Leagues from here, to float on Those that would 
thenceforward Take us through strange lands. Be 
fore embarking thereon, we Began all together a 
new devotion to the blessed Virgin Immaculate, 
which we practiced daily, addressing to her special 
prayers to place under her protection both our 
persons and the success of our voyage; and, after 
mutually encouraging one another, we entered our 

The River on which we embarked is called Mes- 
kousing. It is very wide ; it has a sandy bottom, 
which forms various shoals that render its navigation 
very difficult. It is full of Islands Covered with 
Vines. On the banks one sees fertile land, diversi 
fied with woods, prairies, and Hills. There are oak, 
Walnut, and basswood trees; and another kind, 
whose branches are armed with long thorns. We 
saw there neither feathered game nor fish, but many 
deer, and a large number of cattle. Our Route lay 
to the southwest, and, after navigating about 30 
leagues, we saw a spot presenting all the appear 
ances of an iron mine ; and, in fact, one of our party 
who had formerly seen such mines, assures us that 
The One which We found is very good and very rich. 
It is Covered with three feet of good soil, and is 
quite near a chain of rocks, the base of which is cov 
ered by very fine trees. After proceeding 40 leagues 
on This same route, we arrived at the mouth of our 
River ; and, at 42 and a half degrees Of latitude, We 
safely entered Missisipi on The i/th of June, with a 
Joy that I cannot Express. 








Nous voyla done sur cette Riuiere si renommee 
dont lay tadae" d en remarquer attentiuement 
toutes les singularity ; La Riuiere de Missisipi tire 
son origine de diuers lacs qui sont dans le pays des 
peuples du Nord, elle est estroitte a sa de"charge de 
MisKous; son Courant qui port du Coste" du sud est 
lent et paisible, a la droitte on voist vne grande 
Chaisne de Montagnes fort hautes et a la gauche de 
belles terres, elle est Couppee d Isles en diuers En- 
droictz ; En sondant nous auons trouues dix brasses 
d Eaux, sa Largeur est fort inegale, elle a quelque 
fois trois quartz de lieue s et quelquefois elle se 
re"tressit jusqua trois arpens. Nous suiuons douce- 
ment son Cours, qui va au sud et au sudest jusquaus 
42 degres d Eleuation. C est icy que nous nous 
apperceuons bien qu elle a tout change" de face ; II ny 
a presque plus de bois n y de montagnes, Les Isles 
sont plus beles et Couuertes de plus beaux arbres; 
Nous ne voions que des cheureils et de vaches, des 
outardes et des Cygnes sans aisles, parcequ ils quit- 
tent Leurs plumes en Ce pays: Nous rencontrons de 
temps en temps des poissons monstrueux, vn desquels 
donna si rudement Centre nostre Canot que je Cru 
que c estoit un gros arbre qui L alloit mettre en 
pieces vne autrefois nous apperceumes sur L eau vn 
monstre qui auoit vne teste de tygre, les nez pointu 
Comme Celuy d un chat sauuage, auec la barbe & 
des oreilles droittes Eleue"es en haut, La teste estoit 







3 ( 

g m 

c "1 

in *H 

c? m 

. ^ 

V ^ 

P > 





















HERE we are, then, on this so renowned River, all 
of whose peculiar features I have endeavored 
to note carefully. The Missisipi River takes its rise 
in various lakes in the country of the Northern 
nations. It is narrow at the place where Miskous 
empties; its Current, which flows southward, is slow 
and gentle. To the right is a large Chain of very 
high Mountains, and to the left are beautiful lands; 
in various Places, the stream is Divided by Islands. 
On sounding, we found ten brasses of Water. Its 
Width is very unequal ; sometimes it is three-quar 
ters of a league, and sometimes it narrows to three 
arpents. We gently followed its Course, which runs 
toward the south and southeast, as far as the 42nd 
degree of Latitude. Here we plainly saw that its 
aspect was completely changed. There are hardly 
any woods or mountains ; The Islands are more beau 
tiful, and are Covered with finer trees. We saw 
only deer and cattle, bustards, and Swans without 
wings, because they drop Their plumage in This 
country. From time to time, we came upon mon 
strous fish, one of which struck our Canoe with such 
violence that I Thought that it was a great tree, 
about to break the Canoe to pieces. 21 On another 
occasion, we saw on The water a monster with the 
head of a tiger, a sharp nose Like That of a wildcat, 
with whiskers and straight, Erect ears; The head 
was gray and The Neck quite black ; but We saw no 


grize et La Col tout noir, Nous n en vismes pas 
d auantage. quand nous auons jette" nos retz a 1 eau 
nous auons pris des Esturgeons et une Espece de 
poisson fort extresordinaire, il ressemble a la truitte 
auec Cette difference qu il a la geule plus grande, il 
a proche du nez qui est plus petit aussi bien que les 
yeux vne grande Areste faite Comme vn bust de 
femme, large de trois doigts, Long d une Coude"e, au 
bout de laquelle est vn rond Large Comme la main. 
Cela 1 oblige souuent en saultant hors de 1 eau de tom- 
ber en derriere. Estant descendus jusqua 41 degres 
28 minuittes suiuant Le xnesme rund, nous trouuons 
que les Coqs d inde ont pris la place du gibier, et les 
pisikious oubceufs sauuages, Celle des autres bestes. 
Nous les appelons boeufs sauuages parcequ ils sont 
bien semblables a nos boeufs domestiques, ils ne sont 
pas plus longs mais ils sont pres d une fois plus gros 
et plus Corpulentz ; Nos gens en ayant tu6 vn trois 
personnes auoient bien de la peine a le remuer, ils 
ont la teste fort grosse, Le front plat et Large d un 
pied et demy entre les Cornes qui sont entierement 
semblables a Celles de nos boeufs, mais elles sont 
noires et beaucoup plus grande, Ils ont sous le Col 
Comme vne grande falle, qui pend en bas et sur Le 
dos vne bosse assez e leue e. Toute la teste, Le Col, 
et une partie des Espaules sont Couuertez d un grand 
Crin Comme Celuy des cheuaux, C est une htire 
longue d un pied, qui les rend hideux et leur tombant 
sur les yeux les Empeche de voire deuant Eux ; Le 
reste du Corps est reuetu d un gros poil frise" a peu 
pres Come Celuy de nos moutons, mais bien plus 
fort et plus Espais, il tombe en Este et La peau 
deuient douce Comme du Velours. C est pourlors 
que les sauuages les Employent pour s en faire de 


more creatures of this sort. When we cast our nets 
into the water we caught Sturgeon, and a very extraor 
dinary Kind of fish. It resembles the trout, with 
This difference, that its mouth is larger. Near its 
nose which is smaller, as are also the eyes is a 
large Bone shaped Like a woman s busk, three fin 
gers wide and a Cubit Long, at the end of which is 
a disk as Wide As one s hand. This frequently 
causes it to fall backward when it leaps out of 
the water. 22 When we reached the parallel of 41 
degrees 28 minutes, following The same direction, we 
found that Turkeys had taken the place of game; 
and the pisikious, or wild cattle, That of the other 

We call them " wild cattle," because they are very 
similar to our domestic cattle. They are not longer, 
but are nearly as large again, and more Corpulent. 
When Our people killed one, three persons had much 
difficulty in moving it. The head is very large; 
The forehead is flat, and a foot and a half Wide be 
tween the Horns, which are exactly like Those of our 
oxen, but black and much larger. Under the Neck 
They have a Sort of large dewlap, which hangs down ; 
and on The back is a rather high hump. The whole 
of the head, The Neck, and a portion of the Shoul 
ders, are Covered with a thick Mane Like That of 
horses; It forms a crest a foot long, which makes 
them hideous, and, falling over their eyes, Prevents, 
them from seeing what is before Them. The 
remainder of the Body is covered with a heavy coat 
of curly hair, almost Like That of our sheep, but 
much stronger and Thicker. It falls off in Summer, 
and The skin becomes as soft As Velvet. At that 
season, the savages Use the hides for making fine 


belles Robbes qu ils peignent de diuerses Couleurs; 
la chair et la graisse des pisikious est Excellente et 
fait le meillieur mets des festins au reste ils sont tres 
mechants et il ne se passent point d ann6e qu ils ne 
ttient quelques sauuages quand on vient les attaquer, 
ils prennent s ils peuuent un homme auec leurs 
Cornes, L enleuent en 1 air puis ils le jettent centre 
terre, le foulent des pieds et le tuent, si on tire de 
loing stir Eux oti de larc ou du fusil, il faut si tost 
apres le Coup se jetter a terre et se cacher dans 
1 herbe, Car s ils apercoiuent Celuy qui a tire, ils 
Courent apres et le vont attaquer, Comme ils ont les 
pieds gros et assez Courtz ils ne vont pas bien viste 
pour 1* ordinaire, si ce n est lorsqu ils sont irritez. 
Ils sont espars dans les prairies Comme des trou- 
peaux j en ay veu vne bande de 400. 

Nous auancons tous jours mais Comme nous ne 
scauions pas ou nous allions ayant fait deia plus de 
Cent lieues sans auoir rien de"couuert que des bestes 
et des oyseaux nous Nous tenons bien sur nos gardes ; 
C est pourquoy nous ne faisons qu un petit feu a terre 
sur le soir pour preparer nos repas, et apres souper 
nous Nous en eloignons le plus que nous pouuons, et 
nous allons passer la nuict dans nos Canotz que nous 
tenons a 1 ancre sur la riuiere assez loing des bords; 
Ce qui n empeche pas que qu elquun de nous ne 
soit tous jour en sentinelle de peur de surprise, allant 
par le sud et le sud suroiiest nous nous trouuons a 
la hauteur de 41 degr6z et jusqua 40 degrez quelques 
minutes en partie par sudest et en partie par le sur 
oiiest. Apres auoir auance" plus de 60 lieues depuis 
Nostre Entree dans la Riuiere sans rien de"couurir. 

Enfin le 25*. Juin nous aperceumes sur le bord de 
leau des pistes d hommes, et un petit sentier asse"z 


Robes, which they paint in various Colors. The 
flesh and the fat of the pisikious are Excellent, and 
constitute the best dish at feasts. Moreover, they 
are very fierce ; and not a year passes without their 
killing some savages. When attacked, they catch a 
man on their Horns, if they can, toss Him in the air, 
and then throw him on the ground, after which they 
trample him under foot, and kill him. If a person 
fire at Them from a distance, with either a bow or a 
gun, he must, immediately after the Shot, throw 
himself down and hide in the grass ; For if they per 
ceive Him who has fired, they Run at him, and attack 
him. As their legs are thick and rather Short, they 
do not run very fast, As a rule, except when angry. 
They are scattered about the prairie in herds ; I have 
seen one of 400. 

We continued to advance, but, As we knew not 
whither we were going, for we had proceeded over 
one Hundred leagues without discovering anything 
except animals and birds, we kept well on our 
guard. On this account, we make only a small fire 
on land, toward evening, to cook our meals; and, 
after supper, we remove Ourselves as far from it as 
possible, and pass the night in our Canoes, which we 
anchor in the river at some distance from the shore. 
This does not prevent us from always posting one of 
the party as a sentinel, for fear of a surprise. Pro 
ceeding still in a southerly and south-southwesterly 
direction, we find ourselves at the parallel of 41 
degrees, and as low as 40 degrees and some min 
utes, partly southeast and partly southwest, after 
having advanced over 60 leagues since We Entered 
the River, without discovering anything. 

Finally, on the 2 5th of June, we perceived on the 


battu qui entroit dans une belle prairie. Nous Nous 
arrestames pour 1 Examiner, et jugeant que cestoit 
un chemin qui Conduisoit a quelque village de sau- 
uages, Nous primes resolution de Taller reconnoistre ; 
nous laissons done nos deux Canotz sous la garde de 
nos gens, Leur recommandant bien de ne se pas 
laisser surprendre, apres quoy M r . Jollyet et moy 
entreprimes cette dcouuerte asse z hazardeuse pour 
deux hommes seuls qui s exposent a la discretion 
d un peuple barbare et Inconnu. Nous suiuons en 
silence. Ce petit sentier, et apres auoir fait Enuiron 
2 lieues, Nous decouurimes vn village sur le bord 
d une riuiere, et deux autres sur vn Costeau escarte" 
du premier d une demi lieiie, Ce fut pour lors que 
nous nous recommandames a Dieu de bon Coeur, et 
ayant implore^ son secours, nous passames outre sans 
e"tre decouuerts et nous vinsmes si pres que nous 
entendions mesme parler les sauuages. Nous Grumes 
done qu il estoit temps de nous decouurir, ce que 
Nous fismes par vn Cry que nous poussames de 
toutes Nos forces, en nous arrestant sans plus avan- 
cer. A ce cry les sauuages sortent promptement de 
leurs Cabanes Et nous ayant probablement reconnus 
pour franois, sur tout voyant une robe noire, ou du 
moins n ayant aucun suject de deffiance, puisque 
nous n estions que deux hommes, et que nous les 
auions aduertis de nostre arriuee, ils de"puterent 
quattre vielliards, pour nous venir parler, dontz deux 
portoient des pipes a prendre du tabac, bien ornees 
et Empanachees de diuers plumages, ils marchoient 
a petit pas, et eleuant leurs pipes vers le soleil, ils 
sembloient luy presenter a fumer, sans neamoins 
dire aucun mot. Ils furent assez longtemps a faire 
le peu de chemin depuis leur village jusqu a nous. 


water s edge some tracks of men, and a narrow and 
somewhat beaten path leading to a fine prairie. We 
stopped to Examine it ; and, thinking that it was a 
road which Led to some village of savages, We 
resolved to go and reconnoiter it. We therefore left 
our two Canoes under the guard of our people, 
strictly charging Them not to allow themselves to 
be surprised, after which Monsieur Jollyet and I 
undertook this investigation a rather hazardous one 
for two men who exposed themselves, alone, to the 
mercy of a barbarous and Unknown people. We 
silently followed The narrow path, and, after walk 
ing About 2 leagues, We discovered a village on the 
bank of a river, and two others on a Hill distant 
about half a league from the first. 23 Then we 
Heartily commended ourselves to God, and, after 
imploring his aid, we went farther without being 
perceived, and approached so near that we could 
even hear the savages talking. We therefore De 
cided that it was time to reveal ourselves* This We 
did by Shouting with all Our energy, and stopped, 
without advancing any farther. On hearing the 
shout, the savages quickly issued from their Cabins, 
And having probably recognized us as frenchmen, 
especially when they saw a black gown, or, at 
least, having no cause for distrust, as we were only 
two men, and had given them notice of our arrival, 
they deputed four old men to come and speak to us. 
Two of these bore tobacco-pipes, finely ornamented 
and Adorned with various feathers. They walked 
slowly, and raised their pipes toward the sun, seem 
ingly offering them to it to smoke, without, how 
ever, saying a word. They spent a rather long time 
in covering the short distance between their village 


Enfin nous ayant abord6s, ils s arresterent pour nous 
Considerer auec attention ; Je me r assuray, voyant 
ces Ceremonies qui ne se font parmy eux qu entr - 
amys, et bien plus quand je les vis Couuertz d Estoffe, 
jugeant par la qu ils estoient de nos alliez. Je leurs 
parlay done le premier, et Je leurs demanday qui ils 
estoient, ils me re"pondirent qu ils estoient Ilinois, et 
pour marque de paix ils nous presenterent leurs pipes 
pour petuner, Ensuitte ils nous inuiterent d entrer 
dans leur Village, ou tout le peuple nous attendoit 
auec impatience. Ces pipes a prendre du tabac s ap- 
pellent en Ce pays des Calumetz; ce mot s y est mit 
tellement En vsage que pour estre entendu je seray 
oblig6 de m en seruir ayant a en parler bien des fois. 


ALA Porte de la Cabane ou nous deuions estre 
receus, estoit un vielliard qui nous attendoit 
dans une posture assez surprenante qui est la Cere- 
monie qu ils gardent quand ils recoiuent des Estran- 
gers. Get homme estoit debout et tout nud, tenant 
ses mains estendus et leue"es vers le soleil, Comme 
s il cut voulu se deffendre de ses rayons, lesquels 
neamoins passoient sur son visage entre ses doigts; 
quand nous fusmes proches de luy il nous fit Ce 
Compliment; Que le soleil est beau, franjois, quand 
tu nous viens uisiter, tout nostre bourg t attend, et 
tu entreras en paix dans toute nos Cabanes. Cela 
dit, il nous introduisit, dans la sienne, oh il y auoit 
vne foule de monde qui nous deuoroit des yeux, qui 
cependant gardoit un profond silence, on entendoit 
neamoins ces paroles qu on nous addressoit de*temps 


and us. Finally, when they had drawn near, they 
stopped to Consider us attentively. I was reassured 
when I observed these Ceremonies, which with them 
are performed only among friends ; and much more 
so when I saw them Clad in Cloth, for I judged 
thereby that they were our allies. I therefore spoke 
to them first, and asked them who they were. They 
replied that they were Ilinois; and, as a token of 
peace, they offered us their pipes to smoke. They 
afterward invited us to enter their Village, where 
all the people impatiently awaited us. These pipes 
for smoking tobacco are called in This country 
Calumets. This word has come so much Into use 
that, in order to be understood, I shall be obliged to 
use it, as I shall often have to mention these pipes. 


AT the Door of the Cabin in which we were to be 
received was an old man, who awaited us in a 
rather surprising attitude, which constitutes a part 
of the Ceremonial that they observe when they 
receive Strangers. This man stood erect, and stark 
naked, with his hands extended and lifted toward the 
sun, As if he wished to protect himself from its rays, 
which nevertheless shone upon his face through his 
fingers. When we came near him, he paid us This 
Compliment : How beautiful the sun is, O french 
man, when thou comest to visit us! All our village 
awaits thee, and thou shalt enter all our Cabins in 
peace. " Having said this, he made us enter his own, 
in which were a crowd of people ; they devoured us 
with their eyes, but, nevertheless, observed profound 
silence. We could, however, hear these words, 


en temps et d une voix basse, que voyla qui est bien, 
Mes freres de ce que vous nous visitez. 

Apres que Nous eusmes pris place, on nous fit la 
Ciuilit6 ordinaire du pays, qui est de nous presenter le 
Calumet, il ne faut pas le refuser, si on ne veut passer 
pour Ennemy ou dumoins pour inciuil, pourueu qu on 
fasse semblant de fumer c estassez; pendant quetous 
les anciens petunoient apres Nous pour nous honorer, 
on vient nous inuiter de la part du grand Capitaine de 
tous les Ilinois de nous transporter en sa Bourgade, 
ou il vouloit tenir Conseil auec nous. Nous y allames 
en bonne Compagnie, Car tous ces peuples qui 
n auoient jamais veu de fran9ois chez Eux ne se 
lassoient point de nous regarder, ils se Couchoient 
sur L herbe le long des chemins, ils nous deuangoient, 
puis ils retournoient sur leurs pas, pour nous venir 
voir Encore Tout cela se faisoit sans bruit et auec les 
marques d un grand respect qu ils auoient pour nous. 

Estant arriuez au Bourg du grand Capitaine, Nous 
le vismes a 1 entr^e de sa Cabanne, au milieu de deux 
vielliards, tous trois debout et nud tenant leur 
Calumet tourne" vers le soleil, il nous harangua En 
peu de motz, nous felicitant de nostre arriue e, il nous 
presenta ensuitte son Calumet et nous fit fumer, en 
mesme temps que nous entrions dans sa Cabanne, ou 
nous receumes toutes leurs Caresses ordinaires. 

Voyant tout le monde assemble et dans le silence, 
Je leur parlay par quattre presents que je leur fis, 
par le premier je leur disois que nous marchions en 
paix pour uisiter les nations qui estoient sur la 
Riuiere jusqu a la Mer. par le second je leur decla- 
ray, que Dieu qui les a Cre"es auoit piti6 d Eux, 
puis qu apres tant de temps qu il Tont ignore", il vou- 


which were addressed to us from time to time in a 
low voice: " How good it is, My brothers, that you 
should visit us." 

After We had taken our places, the usual Civility 
of the country was paid to us, which consisted in 
offering us the Calumet. This must not be refused, 
unless one wishes to be considered an Enemy, or at 
least uncivil ; it suffices that one make a pretense of 
smoking. While all the elders smoked after Us, in 
order to do us honor, we received an invitation on 
behalf of the great Captain of all the Ilinois to pro 
ceed to his Village where he wished to hold a Coun 
cil with us. We went thither in a large Company, 
For all these people, who had never seen any french 
men among Them, could not cease looking at us. 
They Lay on The grass along the road ; they preceded 
us, and then retraced their steps to come and see us 
Again. All this was done noiselessly, and with 
marks of great respect for us. 

When we reached the Village of the great Captain, 
We saw him at the entrance of his Cabin, between 
two old men, all three erect and naked, and hold 
ing their Calumet turned toward the sun. He 
harangued us In a few words, congratulating us 
upon our arrival. He afterward offered us his Calu 
met, and made us smoke while we entered his Cabin, 
where we received all their usual kind Attentions. 

Seeing all assembled and silent, I spoke to them 
by four presents that I gave them. By the first, I 
told them that we were journeying peacefully to visit 
the nations dwelling on the River as far as the Sea. 
By the second, I announced to them that God, who 
had Created them, had pity on Them, inasmuch as, 
after they had so long been ignorant of him, he 


loit se faire Connoistre a tous ces peuples, que j estois 
Enuoye de sa part pour ce dessein, que c estoit a Eux 
a le reconnoistre et a luy obe"ir. Par le troisieme 
que le grand Capitaine des franjois leur faisoit sca- 
uoir, que c estoit luy qui mettoit la paix partout et 
qui auoit dompte" L Iroquois. Enfin par le quatrie me 
nous les prions de nous donner toutes Les Connois- 
sances qu ils auoient de la Mer, et des Nations par 
Lesquelles nous deuions passer pour y arriuer. 

Quand jeu finy mon discour, le Capitaine se leua, 
et tenant La main sur la teste d un petit Esclaue 
qu il nous vouloit donner il par la ainsi. Je te remer- 
cy Robe Noire, et toy franois s addressant a M r . 
Jollyet, de ce que vous prenez tant de peine pour 
nous venir visiter, jamais la terre n a este" si belle ny 
le soleil si Eclatant qu aujourd huy; Jamais nostre 
riuiere n a este si Calme, n y si nette de rochers que 
vos canotz ont Enleuees en passant, jamais nostre 
petun n a eii si bon goust, n y nos bleds n ont paru 
si beaux que Nous Les voions maintenant. Voicy 
mon fils que je te donne pour te faire Connoistre mon 
Cceur, je te prie d auoir pitie de moy, et de toute 
ma Nation, C est toy qui Connoist le grand Genie 
qui nous a tous faits, C est toy qui Luy parle et qui 
escoute sa parole, demande Luy qu il me donne la 
vie et la saute", et vient demeurer auec nous, pour 
nous le faire Connoistre. Cela dit, il mit le petit 
Esclaue proche de nous, et nous fit un second 
present, qui estoit un Calumet tout mysterieux, dont 
ilsfont plus d estat que d un Esclaue; il nous te"moi- 
gnoit par ce present L estime qu il faisoit de Mon 
sieur Nostre Gouuerneur, sur le recit que nous luy 
en auions fait; et pour un troisieme il nous prioit de 


wished to make himself Known to all the peoples; 
that I was Sent by him for that purpose ; and that it 
was for Them to acknowledge and obey him. By 
the third, I said that the great Captain of the French 
informed them that he it was who restored peace 
everywhere ; and that he had subdued The Iroquois. 
Finally, by the fourth, we begged them to give us 
all The Information that they had about the Sea, and 
about the Nations through Whom we must pass to 
reach it. 

When I had finished my speech, the Captain arose, 
and, resting His hand upon the head of a little Slave 
whom he wished to give us, he spoke thus: " I 
thank thee, Black Gown, and thee, O frenchman," 
addressing himself to Monsieur Jollyet, " for hav 
ing taken so much trouble to come to visit us. 
Never has the earth been so beautiful, or the sun so 
Bright, as to-day; Never has our river been so Calm, 
or so clear of rocks, which your canoes have 
Removed in passing; never has our tobacco tasted 
so good, or our corn appeared so fine, as We now see 
Them. Here is my son, whom I give thee to Show 
thee my Heart. I beg thee to have pity on me, and 
on all my Nation. It is thou who Knowest the great 
Spirit who has made us all. It is thou who speakest 
to Him, and who hearest his word. Beg Him to give 
me life and health, and to come and dwell with us, 
in order to make us Know him." Having said this, 
he placed the little Slave near us, and gave us a 
second present, consisting of an altogether mysteri 
ous Calumet, upon which they place more value than 
upon a Slave. By this gift, he expressed to us The 
esteem that he had for Monsieur Our Governor, from 
the account which we had given of him ; and, by a 


la part de toute sa Nation, de ne pas passer oultre, a 
cause des grands dangers cm nous nous Exposions. 

Je re"pondis, que je ne Craignois point La mort, et 
que je n estimois point de plus grand bonheur que 
de perdre la vie pour la gloire de Celuy qui a tout 
fait. C est ce que ces pauures peuples ne peuuent 

Le Conseil fut suiuy d un grand festin qui Consis- 
toit en quattre metz qu il fallut prendre auec toutes 
leurs fajons, Le premier seruice fut un grand plat 
de bois plein de sagamite", cest-a-dire de farine de 
bled d inde qu ont fait boiiillir auec de leau qu on 
assaisonne de graisse. Le Maistre des Ceremonies 
auec vne Cueillier pleine de sagamite" me la presenta 
a la bouche par trois ou 4 fois, Comme on feroit a vn 
petit Enfant, il fit Le mesme a M r . Jollyet. pour 
second metz il fit paroistre un second plat ori il y 
auoit trois poissons, il en prit quelques morceaux 
pour en oster les arestes, et ayant souffle" dessus pour 
Les rafraichir, il nous les mit a la bouche, Comme 
L on donneroit la besche"e a un oyseau. on apporte 
pour troisie me seruice vn grand chien, qu on venoit 
de tuer, mais ayant appris que nous n en mangions 
point, on le retira de deuant nous. Enfin le 4*. fut 
une pie"ce de bceuf sauuage, dont on nous mit a la 
bouche Les morceaux les plus gras. 

Apres ce. festin il fallut aller visiter tout le village 
qui est bien Compose" de 300 Cabannes, pendant que 
nous marchions par les Riles, vn orateur haranguoit 
Continuellement pour obliger tout le monde a nous 
voir sans nous estre Importuns; on nous presentoit 
partout des Ceintures, des jartieres, et autres ou- 
urages faits de poil d ours et de bceuf, et tiens en 


third, he begged us on behalf of all his Nation not to 
go farther, on account of the great dangers to which 
we Exposed ourselves. 

I replied that I Feared not death, and that I 
regarded no happiness as greater than that of losing 
my life for the glory of Him who has made all. This 
is what these poor people cannot Understand. 

The Council was followed by a great feast, Con 
sisting of four dishes, which had to be partaken of 
in accordance with all their fashions. The first 
course was a great wooden platter full of sagamite, 
that is to say, meal of indian corn boiled in water, 
and seasoned with fat. The Master of Ceremonies 
filled a Spoon with sagamite three or 4 times, and 
put it to my mouth As if I were a little Child. He 
did The same to Monsieur Jollyet. As a second 
course, he caused a second platter to be brought, on 
which were three fish. He took some pieces of 
them, removed the bones therefrom, and, after blow 
ing upon them to cool Them, he put them in our 
mouths As one would give food to a bird. For the 
third course, they brought a large dog, that had just 
been killed ; but, when they learned that we did not 
eat this meat, they removed it from before us. 
Finally, the 4th course was a piece of wild ox, The 
fattest morsels of which were placed in our mouths. 

After this feast, we had to go to visit the whole 
village, which Consists of fully 300 Cabins. While 
we walked through the Streets, an orator Continually 
harangued to oblige all the people to come to see 
us without Annoying us. Everywhere we were pre 
sented with Belts, garters, and other articles made 
of the hair of bears and cattle, dyed red, Yellow, 
and gray. These are all the rarities they possess. 


rouge, en Jaime et en gris, Ce sont toutes les rarete"z 
quils ont Comme elles ne sont pas bien Conside 
rables, nous ne nous En chargeames point. 

Nous Couchames dans la Cabane du Capitaine, et 
le lendemain nous prismes Conge" de luy, promettant 
de repasser par son bourg dans quatre lunes. II 
nous Conduisit jusqua nos Canotz auec pres de 600 
personnes, qui nous virent Embarquer, nous don- 
nant toutes les marques qu ils pouuoient de la joye 
que Nostre visite leur auoit causee. Je m engageay 
en mon particulier, en leur disant a Dieu que je vien- 
drois 1 an prochain demeurer auec Eux pour les 
instruire. Mais auant que de quitter le pays des 
Ilinois il est bon que je rapporte ce que jay reconnu 
de leurs Coustumes et fa9ons de faire. 






QUI dit Ilinois, c est comme qui diroit en leur 
langue, les hommes, Comme si les autres 
Sauuages, aupres d eux ne passoient que pour 
des bestes, aussi faut-il aduoiier qu ils ont un air 
d humanite" que nous n auons pas remarque" dans 
les autres nations que nous auons veue s sur nostre 
route. Le peu De sejour que jay fait parmy Eux ne 
m a pas permis de prendre toutes les Connoissances 
que j aurois souhaite; de toutes Leurs faons de 
faire voicy ce que j en ay remarque. 

Us sont diuises en plusieures bourgades dont quel- 
qu es vnes sont asses eloigne es de celle dont nous 


As they are of no great Value, we did not burden 
ourselves with Them. 

We Slept in the Captain s Cabin, and on the fol 
lowing day we took Leave of him, promising to pass 
again by his village, within four moons. He 
Conducted us to our Canoes, with nearly 600 persons 
who witnessed our Embarkation, giving us every 
possible manifestation of the joy that Our visit had 
caused them. For my own part, I promised, on bid 
ding them Adieu, that I would come the following 
year, and reside with Them to instruct them. But, 
before quitting the Ilinois country, it is proper that 
I should relate what I observed of their Customs and 


WHEN one speaks the word " Ilinois," it is as if 
one said in their language, " the men," As 
if the other Savages were looked upon by them 
merely as animals. 24 It must also be admitted that 
they have an air of humanity which we have not 
observed in the other nations that we have seen upon 
our route. The shortness Of my stay among Them 
did not allow me to secure all the Information that 
I would have desired; among all Their customs, the 
following is what I have observed. 

They are divided into many villages, some of 
which are quite distant from that of which we speak, 
which is called peouarea. This causes some differ 
ence in their language, which, on the whole, 


parlons qui s appelle peoiiarea, c est ce qui met de la 
difference en leur langue laquelle vniuersellement 
tient de 1 allegonquin de sorte que nous nous enten- 
dions facilement les vns les autres. Leur naturel 
est doux et traitable, nous 1 auons Experiment^ dans 
la reception qu il nous ont faitte. Us ont plusieurs 
femmes donts ils sont Extremement jaloux, ils les 
veillent auec vn grand soin et ils Leurs Couppent Le 
ne"z ou les oreilles quand elles ne sont pas sages, j en 
ay veu plusieures qui portoient les marques de leurs 
de"sordres. Ils ont le Corps bien fait, ils sont lestes 
et fort adroits, a tirer de 1 arc et de la fleche, Ils se 
seruent aussi des fusils qu ils acheptent des sauuages 
nos allies qui ont Commerce auec nos francois ; Ils 
en usent particulierement pour donner L e"pouuante 
par le bruit et par la fumee a leurs Ennemys, qui 
n en n ont point L usage, et n en ont jamais veu 
pour estre trop Eloigne" vers le Couchant. Ils sont 
belliqueux et se rendent redoutables aux peuples 
Eloigne"s du sud et de L oiiest oii ils vont faire des 
Esclaues, desquels ils se seruent pour trafiquer, les 
vendant cherement a d autres Nations, pour d autres 
Marchandises. Ces Sauuages si Eloignes chez qui 
ils vont En guerre n ont aucune Connoissance d Eu 
ropeans; ils ne scauent a que c est ny de fer n y de 
Cuiure, et n ont que des Cousteaux De pierre. quand 
les Ilinois partent pour aller en guerre, il faut que 
tout le bourg en soit aduerty par le grand Cry qu ils 
font a la porte de leurs Cabanes, le soir et Le Matin 
auant que de partir. Les Capitaines se distinguent 
des soldatz par des Escharpes rouges qu ils portent, 
elles sont faittes de Crin d ours et du poil de bceufs 
sauuages auec asses d Industrie, ils se peignent le 


resembles allegonquin, so that we easily understood 
each other. They are of a gentle and tractable dis 
position ; we Experienced this in the reception which 
they gave us. They have several wives, of whom 
they are Extremely jealous ; they watch them very 
closely, and Cut off Their noses or ears when they 
misbehave. I saw several women who bore the 
marks of their misconduct. Their Bodies are shape 
ly; they are active and very skillful with bows and 
arrows. They also use guns, which they buy from 
our savage allies who Trade with our french. They 
use them especially to inspire, through their noise 
and smoke, terror in their Enemies; the latter do 
not use guns, and have never seen any, since they 
live too Far toward the West. They are warlike, 
and make themselves dreaded by the Distant tribes 
to the south and west, whither they go to procure 
Slaves; these they barter, selling them at a high 
price to other Nations, in exchange for other Wares. 25 
Those very Distant Savages against whom they war 
have no Knowledge of Europeans ; neither do they 
know anything of iron, or of Copper, and they have 
only stone Knives. When the Ilinois depart to go 
to war, the whole village must be notified by a loud 
Shout, which is uttered at the doors of their Cabins, 
the night and The Morning before their departure. 
The Captains are distinguished from the warriors by 
wearing red Scarfs. These are made, with consider 
able Skill, from the Hair of bears and wild cattle. 
They paint their faces with red ocher, great quanti 
ties of which are found at a distance of some days 
journey from the village. They live by hunting, 
game being plentiful in that country, and on indian 
corn, of which they always have a good crop; conse- 


visage d un rouge de sanguine, dont il y a grande 
quantity a quelques journees du bourg. ils viuent 
de chasse, qui est abondante en ce pays et de bled 
d inde dont ils font tousjour une bonne recolte, aussi 
n ont-ils jamais souffert de famine, ils sement aussi 
des febues et des melons qui sont Excellentz, surtout 
ceux qui ont la graine rouge, leurs Citrouilles ne sont 
pas des meillieures, ils les font secher au secher au 
soleil pour les manger pendant L hyuer et le primp- 
temps, Leurs Cabanes sont fort grandes, elles sont 
Couuertes et pauees de nattes faittes de Jones; Ils 
trouuent toutes Leurs vaisselle dans le bois et Leurs 
Cuilliers dans la teste des boeufs dontz ils scauent si 
bien accommoder le Crane qu ils s en seruent pour 
manger aisement leur sagamite . 

Ils sont liberaux dans leurs maladies, et Croyent 
que les medicamens qu on leurs donne, operent a 
proportion des presens qu ils auront fais au medicin. 
Ils n ont que des peaux pour habitz, les femmes sont 
tousjours vestues fort modestement et dans une 
grande bien seance, au lieu que les hommes ne se 
mettent pas en peine de se Couurir. Je ne scais par 
quelle superstition quelques Ilinois, aussi bien que 
quelques Nadoiiessi, estant encor jeunes prennent 
1 habit des femmes qu ils gardent toute leur vie. II 
y a du mystere ; Car ils ne se marient jamais, et font 
gloire de s abbaisser a faire tout ce que font les 
femmes; ils vont pourtant en guerre, mais ils ne 
peuuent se seruir que de la massue, et non pas de 
1 arc n y de la fleche qui sont les armes propres des 
hommes, ils assistent a toutes les jongleries et aux 
danses solemnelles qui se font a 1 honneur du Calu 
met, ils y chantent mais ils n y peuuent pas danser, 


quently, they have never suffered from famine. 
They also sow beans and melons, which are Excel 
lent, especially those that have red seeds. Their 
Squashes are not of the best ; they dry them in the 
sun, to eat them during- The winter and the spring. 
Their Cabins are very large, and are Roofed and 
floored with mats made of Rushes. They make all 
Their utensils of wood, and Their Ladles out of the 
heads of cattle, whose Skulls they know so well how 
to prepare that they use these ladles with ease for 
eating their sagamit6. 

They are liberal in cases of illness, and Think that 
the effect of the medicines administered to them is in 
proportion to the presents given to the physician. 
Their garments consist only of skins; the women 
are always clad very modestly and very becomingly, 
while the men do not take the trouble to Cover them 
selves. I know not through what superstition some 
Ilinois, as well as some Nadouessi, while still young, 
assume the garb of women, and retain it throughout 
their lives. There is some mystery in this, For they 
never marry and glory in demeaning themselves to 
do everything that the women do. They go to war, 
however, but can use only clubs, and not bows and 
arrows, which are the weapons proper to men. They 
are present at all the juggleries, and at the solemn 
dances in honor of the Calumet ; at these they sing, 
but must not dance. They are summoned to the 
Councils, and nothing can be decided without their 
advice. Finally, through their profession of leading 
an Extraordinary life, they pass for Manitous, That 
is to say, for Spirits, or persons of Consequence. 28 

There remains no more, except to speak of the 
Calumet. There is nothing more mysterious or more 


ils sont appell^s aux Conseils, cm Ton ne pent rien 
decider sans leurs aduis; Enfin par la profession 
quils font d tme vie Extresordinaire, ils passent pour 
des Manitous C est a dire pour des Genies ou des 
personnes de Consequence. 

II ne reste plus qu a parler du Calumet, il n est 
rien parmy eux ny de plus mysterieux n y de plus 
recommandable, on ne rend pas tant d honneur aux 
Couronnes et aux sceptres des Roys qu ils luy en 
rendent ; il semble estre le Dieu de la paix et de la 
guerre, 1 Arbitre de la vie et de la mort. C est assez 
de le porter sur soy et de le faire voir pour marcher 
en assurance au milieu des Ennemys, qui dans le fort 
du Combat mettent bas Les armes quand on le montre. 
C est pour Cela que les Ilinois m en donnerent un 
pour me seruir de sauuegarde parmy toutes les 
Nations par lesquelles je deuois passer dans mon voy 
age, il y a un Calumet pour La paix et un pour la 
guerre, qui ne sont distingue" s que par la Couleur des 
plumages dontz ils sont erne s : Le Rouge est marque 
de guerre, ils s en seruent encor pour terminer Leur 
differents, pour affermir Leurs alliances et pour 
parler aux Estrangers. II est compose d une pierre 
rouge polie comme du marbre et perce"e d une telle 
fa9on qu un bout sert recevoir le tabac et 1 autre 
s enclave dans le manche, qui est un baston de deux 
pieds de long, gros comme une canne ordinaire et 
perce" par le milieu ; il est embelly de la teste et du 
col de divers oiseaux, dont le plumage est tres beau ; 
ils y ajoutent aussi de grandes plumes rouges, vertes 
et d autres couleurs, dont il est tout empanache ; 
ils en font estat particulierement, parcequ ils le re- 
gardent comme le calumet du Soleil ; et de fait, ils le 


respected among them. Less honor is paid to the 
Crowns and scepters of Kings than the Savages 
bestow upon this. It seems to be the God of peace 
and of war, the Arbiter of life and of death. It has 
but to be carried upon one s person, and displayed, 
to enable one to walk safely through the midst of 
Enemies who, in the hottest of the Fight, lay 
down Their arms when it is shown. For That rea 
son, the Ilinois gave me one, to serve as a safeguard 
among all the Nations through whom I had to pass 
during my voyage. There is a Calumet for peace, 
and one for war, which are distinguished solely by 
the Color of the feathers with which they are adorned ; 
Red is a sign of war. They also use it to put an end 
to Their disputes, to strengthen Their alliances, and 
to speak to Strangers. 27 It is fashioned from a red 
stone, polished like marble, and bored in such a 
manner that one end serves as a receptacle for the 
tobacco, while the other fits into the stem ; this is a 
stick two feet long, as thick as an ordinary cane, and 
bored through the middle. It is ornamented with 
the heads and necks of various birds, whose plumage 
is very beautiful. To these they also add large feath 
ers, red, green, and other colors, wherewith the 
whole is adorned. They have a great regard for it, 
because they look upon it as the calumet of the Sun ; 
and, in fact, they offer it to the latter to smoke when 
they wish to obtain a calm, or rain, or fine weather. 
They scruple to bathe themselves at the beginning 
of Summer, or to eat fresh fruit, until after they 
have performed the dance, which they do as follows: 
The Calumet dance, which is very famous among 
these peoples, is performed solely for important rea 
sons; sometimes to strengthen peace, or to unite 


luy presentent pour fumer quand ils veulent obtenir 
du calme, ou de la pluye, ou du bean temps. Ils 
font scrupule de se baigner au commencement de 
1 Este", ou de manger des fruits nouveaux qu apres 
1 avoir dance". En voicy la fa9on. 

La dance du Calumet, qui est fort celebre parmi 
ces peuples, ne se fait que pour des sujets conside 
rables; quelquefois c est pour affermir la paix, ou se 
reiinir pour quelque grande guerre; c est d autres 
fois pour une rejouissance publique, tantost on en 
fait honneur a une Nation qu on invite d y assister, 
tantost ils s en servent a la reception de quelque per- 
sonne considerable, comme s ils vouloient luy donner 
le divertissement du Bal ou de la Comedie; 1 Hyver 
la ceremonie se fait dans une Cabane, 1 Este" c est en 
raze campagne. La place etant choisie, on 1 envi- 
ronne tout a 1 entour d arbres pour metre tout le 
monde a 1 ombre de leurs feiiillages, pour se d6fendre 
des chaleurs du Soleil; on etend une grande natte 
de joncs peinte de diverses couleurs au milieu de la 
place; elle sert comme de tapis pour mettre dessus 
avec honneur le Dieu de celuy qui fait la Dance ; car 
chacun a le sien, qu ils appellent leur Manitou, c est 
un serpent ou un oyseau ou chose semblable, qu ils 
ont resve" en dormant et en qui ils mettent toute leur 
confiance pour le succez de leur guerre, de leur pesche 
et de leur chasse : pres de ce Manitou, et a sa droite, 
on met le Calumet en 1 honneur de qui se fait la feste 
et tout & 1 entour on fait comme une trophe e et on 
e"tend les armes dont se servent les guerriers de ces 
Nations, S9avoir la massiie, la hache d arme, 1 arc, le 
carquois et les Heches. 

Les choses estant ainsi disposers et 1 heure de la 
Dance approchant, ceux qui sont nommez pour chan- 


themselves for some great war; at other times, for 
public rejoicing. Sometimes they thus do honor to 
a Nation who are invited to be present ; sometimes 
it is danced at the reception of some important per 
sonage, as if they wished to give him the diversion 
of a Ball or a Comedy. In Winter, the ceremony 
takes place in a Cabin; in Summer, in the open 
fields. When the spot is selected, it is completely 
surrounded by trees, so that all may sit in the shade 
afforded by their leaves, in order to be protected 
from the heat of the Sun. A large mat of rushes, 
painted in various colors, is spread in the middle of 
the place, and serves as a carpet upon which to place 
with honor the God of the person who gives the 
Dance; for each has his own god, which they call 
their Manitou. This is a serpent, a bird, or other 
similar thing, of which they have dreamed while 
sleeping, and in which they place all their confidence 
for the success of their war, their fishing, and their 
hunting. Near this Manitou, and at its right, is 
placed the Calumet in honor of which the feast is 
given ; and all around it a sort of trophy is made, 
and the weapons used by the warriors of those 
Nations are spread, namely: clubs, war-hatchets, 
bows, quivers, and arrows. 

Everything being thus arranged, and the hour of 
the Dance drawing near, those who have been ap 
pointed to sing take the most honorable place under 
the branches; these are the men and women who 
are gifted with the best voices, and who sing together 
in perfect harmony. Afterward, all come to take 
their seats in a circle under the branches ; but each 
one, on arriving, must salute the Manitou. This he 
does by inhaling the smoke, and blowing it from his 


ter prennent la place la plus honorable sous les feiiil- 
lages : ce sont les hommes et les f emmes qui ont les 
plus belles voix, et qui s accordent parfaitement bien 
ensemble, tout le monde vient en suite se placer en 
rond sous les branches, mais chacun en arrivant doit 
saltier le Manitou, ce qu il fait en petunant et jettant 
de sa bouche la fume e sur luy comme s il luy pre- 
sentoit de 1 encens; chacun va d abord avec respect 
prendre le Calumet et le soutenant des deux mains, 
il le fait dancer en cadence, s accordant bien avec 
1 air des chansons; il luy fait faire des figures bien 
differentes, tantost il le fait voir a toute I assembl6e 
se [le Martin] tournant de cote" et d autre; apres 
cela, celuy qui doit commencer la Danse paroist au 
milieu de 1 assemblee, et va d abord, et tantost il le 
presente au soleil, comme s il le voulait faire fumer, 
tantost il 1 incline vers la terre, d autres fois [et 
tantot Martin] il luy e"tend les aisles comme pour 
voler, d autres fois il 1 approche de la bouche des 
assistans, arm qu ils fument, le tout en cadence; et 
c est comme la premiere Scene du Ballet. 

La seconde consiste en un Combat qui se fait au 
son d une espece de tambour, qui succede au chan 
sons, ou mesme qui s y joignant, s accordent fort 
bien ensemble : le Danseur fait signe k quelque guer- 
rier de venir prendre les armes qui sont sur la natte 
et 1 invite a se battre au son des tambours : celui-cy 
s approche, prend Tare et la Heche, avec la hache 
d armes et commence le duel centre 1 autre, qui n a 
point d autre defense que le Calumet. Ce spectacle 
est fort agreable, sur tout le faisant tou jours en 
cadence; car 1 un attaque, 1 autre se deffend; 1 un 
porte des coups, 1 autre les pare; 1 un fuit, 1 autre le 
poursuit et puis celuy qui fuyoit tourne visage et 


mouth upon the Manitou, as if he were offering to 
it incense. Every one, at the outset, takes the Calu 
met in a respectful manner, and, supporting it with 
both hands, causes it to dance in cadence, keeping 
good time with the air of the songs. He makes it 
execute many differing figures ; sometimes he shows 
it to the whole assembly, turning himself from one 
side to the other. After that, he who is to begin 
the Dance appears in the middle of the assembly, 
and at once continues this. 28 Sometimes he offers 
it to the sun, as if he wished the latter to smoke it; 
sometimes he inclines it toward the earth ; again, he 
makes it spread its wings, as if about to fly ; at other 
times, he puts it near the mouths of those present, 
that they may smoke. The whole is done in 
cadence; and this is, as it were, the first Scene of 
the Ballet. 

The second consists of a Combat carried on to the 
sound of a kind of drum, which succeeds the songs, 
or even unites with them, harmonizing very well 
together. The Dancer makes a sign to some 
warrior to come to take the arms which lie upon 
the mat, and invites him to fight to the sound of 
the drums. The latter approaches, takes up the bow 
and arrows, and the war- hatchet, and begins the 
duel with the other, whose sole defense is the Calu 
met. This spectacle is very pleasing, especially as 
all is done in cadence; for one attacks, the other 
defends himself; one strikes blows, the other parries 
them; one takes to flight, the other pursues; and 
then he who was fleeing faces about, and causes his 
adversary to flee. This is done so well with slow 
and measured steps, and to the rhythmic sound of the 
voices and drums that it might pass for a very fine 


fait f uir son ennemy ; ce qui se passe si bien par 
mesure et a pas comptez et au son regie des voix et 
des tambours, que cela pourrait passer pour une 
assez belle entree de Ballet en France. La troisieme 
Scene consiste en un grand Discours que fait celuy 
qui tient le Calumet, car le Combat estant fini sans 
sang re"pandu, il raconte les batailles ou il s est trou- 
v6, les victoires qu il a remporte es; il nomme les 
Nations, les lieux et les Captifs qu il a fait; et pour 
recompense celuy qui preside a la Danse luy fait 
present d une belle robe de Castor, ou de quelqu autre 
chose et 1 ayant receu il va presenter le Calumet a 
un autre, celui-ci a un troisieme, et ainsi de tous les 
autres, jusques a ce que tous ayant fait leur devoir, le 
President fait present du Calumet mesme a la Nation 
qui a este invitee a cette Ceremonie, pour marque 
de la paix eternelle qui sera entre les deux peuples. 

Voicy quelqu une des Chansons qu ils ont cotitume 
de chanter, ils leur donnent un certain tour [ton 
Martin] qu on ne peut assez exprimer par la Notte, 
qui neanmoins en fait tout la grace. 

Ninahani, ninahani ninahani nani ongo. 





NOUS prenons conge* de nos Ilinois sur la fin de 
Juin, vers les trois heures apres midy, nous 
nous embarquons a la veue de tous ces peuples, 
qui admiroient nos petits Canots, n en ayant jamais 
veu de semblables. 

Nous descendons suivant le courant de la riviere 
appelle Pekitanoiii, qui se dcharge dans Mississipy 


opening of a Ballet in France. The third Scene con 
sists of a lofty Discourse, delivered by him who 
holds the Calumet; for, when the Combat is ended 
without bloodshed, he recounts the battles at which 
he has been present, the victories that he has won, 
the names of the Nations, the places, and the Cap 
tives whom he has made. And, to reward him, he 
who presides at the Dance makes him a present of a 
fine robe of Beaver-skins, or some other article. 
Then, having received it, he hands the Calumet to 
another, the latter to a third, and so on with all the 
others, until every one has done his duty ; then the 
President presents the Calumet itself to the Nation 
that has been invited to the Ceremony, as a token of 
the everlasting peace that is to exist between the 
two peoples. 

Here is one of the Songs that they are in the habit 
of singing. They give it a certain turn which 
cannot be sufficiently expressed by Note, but which 
nevertheless constitutes all its grace. 

Ninahani, ninahani, ninahani, nani 





WE take leave of our Ilinois at the end of June, 
about three o clock in the afternoon. We 
embark in the sight of all the people, who admire 
our little Canoes, for they have never seen any like 

We descend, following the current of the river 
called Pekitanoui, which discharges into the Mis- 
sissipy, flowing from the Northwest. I shall have 


venant du Nord-Oiiest de la quelle j ay quelque chose 
de considerable a dire, apres que j auray raconte* ce 
que j ay remarque sur cette riviere. 

passant proche des rochers assez hautz qui bordent 
la riuiere, J apperceu un simple qui m a paru fort 
Extraordinair. La racine est semblable a des petitz 
naueaux attachez les uns aux autres par les petitz 
filetz qui ont le gout de carote ; de cette racine sort vne 
feuille large Comme la main espaisses d un demy doigt 
auec des taches au milieu, de cette feuille, naissent 
d autres feuilles semblables aux plaques qui seruent 
de flambeaux dans nos sales, et chasque feuille porte 
Cinq ou six fleurs jaunes en forme de Clochettes. 

Nous trouuames quantite" de meures aussi grosses 
que Celle de france, et un petit fruict que nous 
prismes d abord pour des oliues, mais il auoit le gout 
d orange, et un aultre fruit gros Comme vn ceuf de 
poule, nous le fendismes en deux, et parurent deux 
separations, dans chasqu une desquelles il y a 8 ou 10 
fruitz enchasse s, ils ont la figure d amande et sont 
fort bons quand ils sont meurs; L arbre neamoins 
qui les porte a tres mauuaise odeur, et sa feuille res- 
semble a Celle de noyer, il se trouue aussi dans Les 
prairies un fruit semblable a des Noisettes mais plus 
tendre; Les feuilles sont fort grandes, et viennent 
d une tige au bout de laquelle est une teste sem 
blable a Celle d un tournesol, dans laquelle toutes 
ses Noisettes sont proprement arrangers, elle sont 
fort bonnes et Cuites et Crues. 

Comme nous Cottoions des roches affreux pour 
Leur haulteur et pour leur Longour ; Nous vismes 
sur un de ces roches deux monstres en peinture qui 
Nous firent peur d abord et sur Lesquels les sauuages 
les plus hardys n osent pas arrester Longtemps les 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S FIRST VO YA GE 139 

something important to say about it, when I shall 
have related all that I observed along this river. 31 

While passing near the rather high rocks that line 
the river, I noticed a simple which seemed to me 
very Extraordinary. The root is like small turnips 
fastened together by little filaments, which taste like 
carrots. From this root springs a leaf as wide As 
one s hand, and half a finger thick, with spots. 
From the middle of this leaf spring other leaves, 
resembling the sconces used for candles in our halls ; 
and each leaf bears Five or six yellow flowers shaped 
like little Bells. 

We found quantities of mulberries, as large as 
Those of france ; and a small fruit which we at first 
took for olives, but which tasted like oranges ; and 
another fruit as large As a hen s egg. We cut it in 
halves, and two divisions appeared, in each of which 
8 to 10 fruits were encased; these are shaped like 
almonds, and are very good when ripe. Never 
theless, The tree that bears them has a very bad odor, 
and its leaves resemble Those of the walnut-tree. 
In These prairies there is also a fruit similar to 
Hazelnuts, but more delicate; The leaves are very 
large, and grow from a stalk at the end of which is 
a head similar to That of a sunflower, in which all 
its Nuts are regularly arranged. These are very 
good, both Cooked and Raw. 33 

While Skirting some rocks, which by Their height 
and Length inspired awe, We saw upon one of them 
two painted monsters which at first made Us afraid, 
and upon Which the boldest savages dare not Long 
rest their eyes. They are as large As a calf; they 
have Horns on their heads Like those of deer, a 
horrible look, red eyes, a beard Like a tiger s, a face 


yeux; ils sont gros Comme vn veau. ils ont des 
Comes en teste Comme des cheureils; un regard 
affreux, des yeux rouges, une barbe Comme d un 
tygre, la face a quelque chose de I homme, le corps 
Couuert d ecailles, et La queue si Longue qu elle fait 
tout le tour du Corps passant par dessus la teste et 
retournant entre les jambes elle se termine en queue 
de Poisson. Le vert, Le rouge et Le noirastre sont 
les trois Couleurs qui Le Composent : au reste ces 2 
monstres sont si bien peint que nous ne pouuons pas 
croire qu aucun sauuage en soit L autheur, puisque 
Les bons peintres en france auroient peine a si bien 
faire, veuque d ailleurs ils sont si hauts sur le rocher 
qu il est difficile d y atteindre Commodement pour les 
peindre. voicy a peu pres La figure de ces monstres 
Comme nous L auons Contretiree. 

Comme nous entretenions sur ces monstres, 
voguant paisiblement dans vne belle Eau claire et 
dormante nous entredisme le bruit d un rapide, dans 
lequel nous allions tomber. Je n ay rien veu de plus 
affreux, vn ambaras de gros arbres entiers, de 
branches, & islets flotans, sortoit de L embouchure 
de La riuiere pekistanoui auec tant d impetuosite 
qu on ne pouuoit s exposer a passer au trauers sans 
grand danger. L agitation estoit telle que 1 eau en 
estoit toute boueuse et ne pouuoit s epurer. 

Pekitanoui est une riuiere Considerable qui venant 
d assez Loing du Coste du Noroiiest, se de"charge 
dans Missisipi, plusieures Bourgades de sauuages 
sont placets le long de cette riuiere, et j espere par 
son moyen faire la de"couuerte de la mer vermeille 
ou de Californie. 

Nous jugeons bien par Le Rund de vent que tient 
Missisipi, si elle Continue dans la mesme route, 


somewhat like a man s, a body Covered with scales, 
and so Long A tail that it winds all around the Body, 
passing above the head and going back between the 
legs, ending in a Fish s tail. Green, red, and black 
are the three Colors composing the Picture. More 
over, these 2 monsters are so well painted that we 
cannot believe that any savage is their author ; for 
good painters in france would find it difficult to paint 
so well, and, besides, they are so high up on the 
rock that it is difficult to reach that place Conven 
iently to paint them. Here is approximately The 
shape of these monsters, As we have faithfully 
Copied It. 33 

While conversing about these monsters, sailing 
quietly in clear and calm Water, we heard the noise 
of a rapid, into which we were about to run. I have 
seen nothing more dreadful. An accumulation of 
large and entire trees, branches, and floating islands, 
was issuing from The mouth of The river pekistanoui, 
with such impetuosity that we could not without 
great danger risk passing through it. So great was 
the agitation that the water was very muddy, and 
could not become clear. 

Pekitanoui is a river of Considerable size, coming 
from the Northwest, from a great Distance ; and it 
discharges into the Missisipi. There are many Vil 
lages of savages along this river, and I hope by its 
means to discover the vermillion or California sea. 

Judging from The Direction of the course of the 
Missisipi, if it Continue the same way, we think that 
it discharges into the mexican gulf. It would be a 
great advantage to find the river Leading to the 
southern sea, toward California; and, As I have said, 
this is what I hope to do by means of the Pekitanoui , 


qu elle a sa de"charge dans le golphe mexique ; il 
seroit bien aduantageux de trouuer celle qui Conduit 
a la mer du sud, vers la Californie, et c est Comme 
j ay dit ce que j espere de rencontrer par PeKitanoui 
suiuant le rapport que m en ont fait les sauuages, 
desquels, jay appris qu en refoullant cette riuiere 
pendant 5 ou 6 Journe"es on trouue vne belle prairie 
de 20 ou 30 Lieues de Long, il faut la trauerser allant 
au Noroiiest, elle se termine a vne autre petite 
riuiere, sur laquelle on peut s embarquer, n e"tant 
pas bien difficile de transporter les Canotz par vn si 
beau pays tel qu est cette prairie. Cette 2 de . Riuiere 
a son Cours vers Le suroiiest pendant 10 ou 15 Lieues 
apres quoy elle entre dans un petit Lac profond [qui 
est la source d une autre riviere profonde, substituted 
by Dablon}, laquelle va au Couchant, ou elle se jette 
dans La mer. je ne doubte presque point que ce ne 
soit La mer vermeille, et je ne desespere pas d en faire 
un jour La de"couuerte, si Dieu m en fait la grace et me 
donne La sante affin de pouuoir publier L Euangile a 
tous Les peuples de ce nouueau monde, qui ont Croupi 
si Longtemps dans les tenebres de L infidelite . 

Reprenons nostre Route apres nous estre Eschapes 
Comme Nous auons pu de ce dangereux rapide Cause 
par L ambaras dont jay parle". 


APRES avoir fait environ 20 Lieues droit au sud et 
un peu moins au sudest nous nous trouvons a 
une riviere nominee ouaboukigou dont L embouchure 

1673 - 77] MARQ UETTE S FIRST VO YA GE 143 

according to the reports made to me by the savages. 
From them I have learned that, by ascending this 
river for 5 or 6 Days, one reaches a fine prairie, 20 
or 30 Leagues Long. This must be crossed in a 
Northwesterly direction, and it terminates at another 
small river, on which one may embark, for it is 
not very difficult to transport Canoes through so fine 
a country as that prairie. This 2nd River Flows 
toward The southwest for 10 or 15 Leagues, after 
which it enters a Lake, small and deep [the source 
of another deep river substituted by Dablori\, which 
flows toward the West, where it falls into The sea. 34 
I have hardly any doubt that it is The vermillion 
sea, and I do not despair of discovering It some day, 
if God grant me the grace and The health to do so, 
in order that I may preach The Gospel to all The 
peoples of this new world who have so Long 
Groveled in the darkness of infidelity. 

Let us resume our Route, after Escaping As best 
We could from the dangerous rapid Caused by The 
obstruction which I have mentioned. 


AFTER proceeding about 20 Leagues straight to the 
south, and a little less to the southeast, we 
found ourselves at a river called ouaboukigou, The 
mouth of which is at the 36th degree of latitude. 
Before reaching it, we passed by a Place that is 
dreaded by the Savages, because they believe that a 
manitou is there, that is to say, a demon, that 


est par les 36 degrez d elevation. Avant que d y 
arriver nous passons par un Lieu redoutable aux Sau 
vages parcequ ils estiment qu il y a un manitou c est 
a dire un demon qui devore Les passans, et c est 
dequoy nous menacoient Les sauvages qui nous 
vouloient detourner de nostre entreprise. voicy ce 
demon, c est une petite anse de rochers haulte de 20 
pieds ou se degorge tout Le Courant de la riviere 
Lequel estant repousse" centre celuy qui Le suit et 
arreste" par une Isle qui est proche, est Contraint de 
passer par un petit Canal, ce qui ne se fait pas sans un 
furieux Combat de toutes ces eaux qui rebroussent 
Les unes sur Les autres et sans un grand tintamarre 
qui donne de la terreur a des sauvages qui craignent 
tout, mais cela ne nous empeche point de passer et 
d arriver a tfabtfkigtf. Cette riviere vient des terres 
du Levant ou sont les peuples qu on appelle Chaoua- 
nons, en si grand nombre qu en un quartier on 
Compte jusqua 23 villages et 15 en un aultre assez 
proches Les uns des aultres ; ils ne sont nullement 
guerriers, et ce sont les peuples que les Iroquois vont 
chercher si loing pour Leur faire la guerre sans 
aucun sujet, et parceque ces pauvres gens ne scavent 
pas se deffendre, ils se laissent prendre et emmener 
Comme des trouppeaux, et tout innocents qu ils sont, 
ils ne laissent pas de ressentir quelque fois La 
barbarie des Iroquois qui Les bruslent cruellement. 
Un peu au dessus de cette riviere dont ie viens de 
parler sont des falaises ou nos francois ont appercue 
une mine de fer qu ils jugent tres abondante, il y en 
a plusieures veines et un lit d un pied de hauteur; 
on en voit de gros morceaux liez avec des Cailloux. 
II s y trouve d une terre grasse de trois sortes de 


devours travelers; and The savages, who wished to 
divert us from our undertaking, warned us against 
it. This is the demon: there is a small cove, sur 
rounded by rocks 20 feet high, into which The whole 
Current of the river rushes; and, being pushed back 
against the waters following It, and checked by an 
Island near by, the Current is Compelled to pass 
through a narrow Channel. This is not done with 
out a violent Struggle between all these waters, 
which force one another back, or without a great din, 
which inspires terror in the savages, who fear every 
thing. But this did not prevent us from passing, 
and arriving at Waboukigou. 35 This river flows 
from the lands of the East, where dwell the people 
called Chaouanons in so great numbers that in one 
district there are as many as 23 villages, and 15 in 
another, quite near one another. They are not at 
all warlike, and are the nations whom the Iroquois 
go so far to seek, and war against without any rea 
son; and, because these poor people cannot defend 
themselves, they allow themselves to be captured 
and taken Like flocks of sheep ; and, innocent though 
they are, they nevertheless sometimes experience 
The barbarity of the Iroquois, who cruelly burn 
Them. 36 

A short distance above the river of which I have 
just spoken are cliffs, on which our frenchmen noticed 
an iron mine, which they consider very rich. There 
are several veins of ore, and a bed a foot thick, and 
one sees large masses of it united with Pebbles. A 
sticky earth is found there, of three different colors 
purple, violet, and Red. The water in which the 
latter is washed assumes a bloody tinge. There is 
also very heavy, red sand. I placed some on a 


couleurs, de pourpre, de violet, et des Rouges. 
L eau dans laquelle on la lave prend la couleur de 
sang. II y a aussi d un sable rouge fort pesant. 
J en mis sur un aviron qui en prit la couleur si forte- 
ment, que L eau ne la put effacer pendant 15 jours 
que je m en servois pour nager. 

C est icy que nous Commencons a voir des Cannes 
ou gros roseaux qui sont sur le bord de la riviere, 
elles ont un vert fort agreable, tous les noeuds sont 
couronnez de feiiilles Longues, estroittes et pointties, 
elles sont fort hautes et en si grande quantite* que 
Les bceufs sauvages ont peine de les forcer. 

Jusqua present nous n avions point estez incom- 
mode s Les maringouins, mais nous entrons comme 
dans leur pays. Voicy ce que font les sauvages de 
ces quartiers pour s en deffendre; ils elevent un 
eschaffault dont le plancher n est fait que de perches, 
et par consequent est perce a jour affinque la fume*e 
du feu qu ils font dessous passe au travers et chasse 
ces petitz animaux qui ne la peuvent supporter, on 
se couche sur les perches au dessus desquelles sont 
des escorces estendiies contre la pluye. Get eschaf 
fault leur sert encor contre Les chaleurs excessives 
et Insupportables de ce pays, car on s y met a 
1 ombre a 1 estage d en bas, et on si garantit des ray 
ons du soleil, prenant le frais du vent qui passe 
librement autravers de cet eschaffault 

Dans le mesme dessein nous fusmes contraincts de 
faire sur L eau une espace de cabane avec nos voiles 
pour nous mettre a couvert et des maringouins et des 
rayons du soleil, comme nous nous laissions aller en 
cet estat au gre" de L eau, nous apperceumes a terre 
des sauvages armez de fusils avec lesquels ils nous 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S FIRST VO YA GE 147 

paddle, which was dyed with, its color so deeply 
that The water could not wash it away during the 
15 days while I used it for paddling. 

Here we Began to see Canes, or large reeds, which 
grow on the bank of the river; their color is a very 
pleasing green ; all the nodes are marked by a Crown 
of Long, narrow, and pointed leaves. They are very 
high, and grow so thickly that The wild cattle have 
some difficulty in forcing their way through them. 

Hitherto, we had not suffered any inconvenience 
from mosquitoes; but we were entering into their 
home, as it were. This is what the savages of this 
quarter do to protect themselves against them. They 
erect a scaffolding, the floor of which consists only 
of poles, so that it is open to the air in order that 
the smoke of the fire made underneath may pass 
through, and drive away those little creatures, which 
cannot endure it; the savages lie down upon the 
poles, over which bark is spread to keep off rain. 
These scaffoldings also serve them as protection 
against The excessive and Unbearable heat of this 
country; for they lie in the shade, on the floor 
below, and thus protect themselves against the sun s 
rays, enjoying the cool breeze that circulates freely 
through the scaffolding. 

With the same object, we were compelled to erect 
a sort of cabin on The water, with our sails as a pro 
tection against the mosquitoes and the rays of the 
sun. While drifting down with The current, in this 
condition, we perceived on land some savages armed 
with guns, who awaited us. I at once offered them 
my plumed calumet, while our frenchmen prepared 
for defense, but delayed firing, that The savages 
might be the first to discharge their guns. I spoke 


attendoient; Je leur presentay d abord mon calumet 
empanache pendant que nos francois se mettent en 
deffense, et attendoient a tirer, que Les sauvages 
eussent fait la premiere decharge; je leur parlay en 
huron, mais ils me repondirent par un mot qui me 
sembloit nous declarer la guerre, ils avoient nean- 
moins autant de peur que nous, et ceque nous 
prenions pour signal de guerre, estoit une Invitation 
qu ils nous faisoit de nous approcher, pour nous 
donner a manger; Nous debarquons done et nous 
entrons dans leur Cabanes ou ils nous presente du 
bceuf sauvage et de 1 huile d ours, avec des prunes 
blanches qui sont tres excellentes. Ils ont des fusils, 
des haches, des houes, des Cousteaux de La rassade, 
des bouteilles de verre double ou ils mettent Leur 
poudre, ils ont Les cheveux longs, et se marquent 
par le corps a la fa9on des hiroquois ; les femmes 
sont coiffees et vestues a la fa9on des huronnes, ils 
nous assurerent qu ils n y avoient plus que dix jour- 
nees jusqua La mer, qu ils acheptoient Les estoffes 
et toutes autres marchandise des Europeans qui 
estoient du coste de L est, que ces Europeans avoient 
des chapeletz, et des images, qu ils jouoient des 
Instrumentz, qu il y en avoitqui estoient faitzComme 
moy, et qu ils en estoient bien recue; Cependant 
je ne vis personne qui me parut avoir recue aucune 
instruction pour la foy, je Leurs en donnay ceque je 
pus avec quelques medailles. 

Ces nouvelles animerent nos courages et nous firent 
prendre L aviron avec une Nouvelle ardeur. Nous 
avangons done, et nous ne voions plus tant de prai 
ries, parceque les 2 costez de La riviere sont borde"z 
de hauts bois. Les cottonniers, Les ormes, et les 


to them in huron, but they answered me by a word 
which seemed to me a declaration of war against us. 
However, they were as frightened as we were ; and 
what we took for a signal for battle was an Invita 
tion that they gave us to draw near, that they might 
give us food. We therefore landed, and entered their 
Cabins, where they offered us meat from wild cattle 
and bear s grease, with white plums, which are very 
good. They have guns, hatchets, hoes, Knives, 
beads, and flasks of double glass, in which they put 
Their powder. They wear Their hair long, and 
tattoo their bodies after the hiroquois fashion. The 
women wear head-dresses and garments like those of 
the huron women. They assured us that we were 
no more than ten days journey from The sea; that 
they bought cloth and all other goods from the 
Europeans who lived to The east, that these Euro 
peans had rosaries and pictures; that they played 
upon Instruments; that some of them looked Like 
me, and had been received by these savages kindly. 
Nevertheless, I saw none who seemed to have 
received any instruction in the faith ; I gave Them 
as much as I could, with some medals. 37 

This news animated our courage, and made us 
paddle with Fresh ardor. We thus push forward, 
and no longer see so many prairies, because both 
shores of The river are bordered with lofty trees. 
The cottonwood, elm, and basswood trees there are 
admirable for Their height and thickness. The 
great numbers of wild cattle, which we heard bel 
lowing, lead us to believe that The prairies are near. 
We also saw Quail on the water s edge. We killed 
a little parroquet, one half of whose head was red, 
The other half and The Neck yellow, and The whole 


bois blancs y sont admirables pour Leur haulteur, et 
Leur grosseur. La grande quantite de bceufs sau- 
vages que nous entendions meugler nous fait croire 
que Les prairies sont proches : Nous voions aussi des 
Cailles sur 1 aborde de L eau; nous avons tue" un 
petit perroquet qui avoit la moitie de la teste rouge, 
L autre et Le Col jaune, et tout Le corps vert. 
Nous estions descendus proche des 33 degrez d es- 
levation ayant presque tousjours este Vers Le sud, 
quand nous apperceumes un village sur Le bord de 
L eau nomine" Mitchigamea; Nous eumes recours a 
nostre Patrone et a nostre conductrice La Ste VIERGE 
IMMACULEE, et nous avions bien besoin de son assis 
tance, Car nous entendisme de loing Les sauvages 
qui s animoient au Combat par leurs crys Continuels ; 
ils estoient armes d arcs, de fleches, de baches, de 
massiies, et de boucliers ; ils se mirent en estat de 
nous attaquer par terre, et par eau; un partie s em- 
barque dans de grand canotz de bois, les uns pour 
monter la riviere ; Les autres pour la descendre, affin 
de nous Coupper chemin, et nous envelopper de tous 
costez ; Ceux qui estoient a terre alloient et venoient 
comme pour commencer L attaque ; De fait de 
Jeunes hommes se jetterent a L eau, pour se venir 
saisir de mon Canot, mais le courant Les ayant con- 
traint de reprendre terre, un deux nous jetta sa 
massue qui passa par dessus nous sans nous f rapper ; 
J avois beau montrer Le calumet, et leur faire signe 
par gestes que nous ne venions pas en guerre; L a- 
larme continuoit tousjour et Ton se preparoit deia a 
nous percer de fleches de toutes parts quand Dieu 
toucha soudainment le coeur des viellards qui 
estoient sur la bord de 1 eau sans doubte par la veiie 


body green. We had gone down to near the 33rd 
degree of latitude having proceeded nearly all the 
time in a southerly direction, when we perceived a 
village on The water s edge called Mitchigamea. 38 
We had recourse to our Patroness and guide, The 
Blessed VIRGIN IMMACULATE; and we greatly needed 
her assistance, For we heard from afar The savages 
who were inciting one another to the Fray by their 
Continual yells. They were armed with bows, 
arrows, hatchets, clubs, and shields. They prepared 
to attack us, on both land and water; part of them 
embarked in great wooden canoes some to ascend, 
others to descend the river, in order to Intercept us 
and surround us on all sides. Those who were on 
land came and went, as if to commence The attack. 
In fact, some Young men threw themselves into The 
water, to come and seize my Canoe ; but the current 
compelled Them to return to land. One of them 
then hurled his club, which passed over without 
striking us. In vain I showed The calumet, and 
made them signs that we were not coming to war 
against them. The alarm continued, and they were 
already preparing to pierce us with arrows from all 
sides, when God suddenly touched the hearts of the 
old men, who were standing at the water s edge. 
This no doubt happened through the sight of our 
Calumet, which they had not clearly distinguished 
from afar; but as I did not cease displaying it, they 
were influenced by it, and checked the ardor of their 
Young men. Two of these elders even, after 
casting into our canoe, as if at our feet, Their bows 
and quivers, to reassure us entered the canoe, and 
made us approach the shore, whereon we landed, 
not without fear on our part. At first, we had to 


de nostre Calumet qu ils n avoient pas bien reconnu 
de loing, mais comme je ne cessois de le faire 
paroistre, ils en furent touchez arresterent 1 ardeur 
de leur Jeunesse, et mesme deux de ces anciens ayant 
jettez dans nostre canot comme a nos pieds Leurs 
arcs et Leurs carquois pour nous mettre en asseu- 
rance, ils y entrerent et nous firent approcher de 
terre, ou nous debarquames non pas sans crainte de 
nostre part, il fallut au commencement parler par 
gestes, parceque personne n entendoit rien de six 
langues que je scavois, il se trouva enfin un viellard 
qui parloit un peu L llinois. 

Nous leurs fimes paroistre par nos presens que 
nous allions a la mer, ils entendirent bien ce que 
nous Leur voulions dire, mais je ne scay s ils con- 
ceurent ceque je leurs dis de Dieu et des choses de 
leur salut, c est une semence jette"e en terre qui fruc- 
tifira en son temps. Nous n eusmes point d autre 
reponse sinon que nous apprendrions tous ce que nous 
desirions d un aultre grand village nomine" Akamsea 
qui n estoit qu a 8 ou 10 lieues plus bas, ils nous 
presenterent de la sagamite et du poisson, et nous 
passames La nuict chez eux avec assez d inquietude. 





NOUS embarquames le lendemain de grand matins 
avec nostre interprette ; un canot ou estoient 
dix sauvages alloit un peu devant nous ; estant arri- 
ve"s a une demie lieue des Akamsea, nous vismes 


speak by signs, because none of them understood the 
six languages which I spoke. At last, we found an 
old man who could speak a little Ilinois. 

We informed them, by our presents, that we were 
going to the sea. They understood very well what 
we wished to say to Them, but I know not whether 
they apprehended what I told them about God, and 
about matters pertaining to their salvation. This is 
a seed cast into the ground, which will bear fruit in 
its time. We obtained no other answer than that we 
would learn all that we desired at another large vil 
lage, called Akamsea, which was only 8 or 10 leagues 
lower down. They offered us sagamite and fish, 
and we passed The night among them, with some 





WE embarked early on the following day, with 
our interpreter ; a canoe containing ten sav 
ages went a short distance ahead of us. When we 
arrived within half a league of the Akamsea, 39 we 
saw two canoes coming to meet us. He who com 
manded stood upright, holding in his hand The calu 
met, with Which he made various signs, according 
to the custom of the country. He joined us, singing 
very agreeably, and gave us tobacco to smoke ; after 
that, he offered us sagamite*, and bread made of 
indian corn, of which we ate a little. He then 
preceded us, after making us a sign to follow Him 
slowly. A place had been prepared for us under 
The scaffolding of the chief of the warriors ; it was 


paroistre deux canotz qui venoient au devant de nous : 
Oeluy qui y commandoit estoit debout tenant en 
main Le calumet, avec Lequel il faisoit plusieurs 
gestes selon la coustume du pays, il vint nous joindre 
en chantant assez agreablement, et nous donna a 
fumer, apres quoy il nous presenta de la sagamite" et 
du pain fait de bled d inde, dont nous mangeammes 
un peu; Ensuitte il prit le devant nous ayant fait 
signe de venir doucement apres Luy: on nous avoit 
prepaid un place sous L eschaffault du chef des guer- 
riers, elle estoit propre et tapissee de belles nattes 
de jonc, sur Lesquelles on nous fit asseoir, ayant 
autour de nous les anciens, qui estoient plus proches ; 
apres Les guerriers et enfin tout Le peuple en foule. 
Nous trouvames la par bonheur un Jeune homme 
qui entendoit L llinois beaucoup mieux que L lnter- 
prette que nous avions amene de Mitchigamea, ce fut 
par son moyen que je parlay d abord a toute cette 
assemble par Les presens ordinaires : ils admiroient 
ce que je Leurs disois de Dieu et des mysteres de 
nostre s te f oy ; ils f aisoient paroistre un grand desir 
de me retenir avec eux pour Les pouvoir instruire 

Nous leurs demandames ensuitte ce qu ils scavoient 
de la mer; ils nous repondirent que nous n en estions 
qu a dix journe"es; nous aurions pu faire ce chemin 
en 5 jours; qu ils ne connoissoient pas Les Nations 
qui L habitoient a cause que Leurs ennemys Les 
empechoient d avoir Commerce avec ces Europeans, 
que les haches, Cousteaux, et rassade que nous voions 
Leur estoient vendues en partie par des Nations de 
L est, et en partie par une bourgade D llinois place e 
a L ouest a quattre journe"es de la; que ces sauvages 
que nous avons rencontres qui avoient des fusils 



2 H 

- ; 1 

5". m 

I \ 

crq ;. 

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o _- 

s 5c 


clean, and carpeted with fine rush mats. Upon 
These we were made to sit, having around us the 
elders, who were nearest to us; after them, The war 
riors ; and, finally, all The common people in a crowd. 
We fortunately found there a Young man who under 
stood Ilinois much better than did The Interpreter 
whom we had brought from Mitchigamea. Through 
him, I spoke at first to the whole assembly by The 
usual presents. They admired what I said to Them 
about God and the mysteries of our holy faith. 
They manifested a great desire to retain me among 
them, that I might instruct Them. 

We afterward asked them what they knew about 
the sea. They replied that we were only ten days 
journey from it we could have covered the distance 
in 5 days; that they were not acquainted with The 
Nations who dwelt There, because Their enemies 
prevented Them from Trading with those Europeans ; 
that the hatchets, Knives, and beads that we saw 
were sold to Them partly by Nations from The east, 
and partly by an Ilinois village situated at four days 
journey from their village westward. They also 
told us that the savages with guns whom we had 
met were Their Enemies, who barred Their way to 
the sea, and prevented Them from becoming ac 
quainted with the Europeans, and from carrying on 
any trade with them; that, moreover, we exposed 
ourselves to great dangers by going farther, on 
account of the continual forays of their enemies along 
the river, because, as they had guns and were very 
warlike, we could not without manifest danger 
proceed down the river, which they constantly 

During this conversation, food was continually 


estoient Leurs Ennemys, lesquels Leurs fermoient 
le passage de la mer, et Les empechoient d avoir 
connoissance des Europeans, et d avoir avec eux 
aucun commerce; qu au reste nous nous exposions 
beau coup de passer plus oultre a cause des courses 
continuelles que leurs ennemys font sur la riviere, 
qui ayant des fusils et estant fort agguerris, nous ne 
pouvions pas sans un danger evident avancer sur 
cette riviere qu ils occupent continuellement. 

Pendant cet entretien, on nous apportoit conti 
nuellement a manger dans de grands platz de bois, 
tantost de la sagamite , tantost du bled entier, tantost 
d un morceaux de chien, toute La journee se passa 
en festins. Ces peuples sont assez officieux et libe- 
raux de ce qu ils ont, mais ils sont miserable pour 
Le vivre, nosant aller a la chasse des boeufs sauvages 
a cause de Leurs Ennemys, il est vray qu ils ont le 
bled d inde en abondance, qu ils sement en toutes 
saisons, nous en vismes en mesme temps qui estoient 
en maturit^. D autre qui ne faisoit que pousser, et 
1 autre qui estoit en Laict, de sorte qu ils sement trois 
fois 1 an. Ils le font cuire dans de grands potz de 
terre qui sont fort bien faits. ils ont aussi des 
assi6tes de terres cuitte dontz ils se servent a divers 
usages, les hommes vont nuds, portant Les cheveux 
courtz; ont le n6z perce d ou pend de la rassade 
aussi bien que de Leurs oreilles: les femmes sont 
vestues de meschantes peaux, noiient Leurs cheveux 
en deux tresses qu elles jettent derriere les oreilles, 
et n ont aucune rarete" pour se parer. Leurs festins 
se font sans aucune ceremonie, ils presentent aux In- 
vitez de grand platz dontz chascun mange a discre 
tion, et se donnent les restes, Les uns aux autres. 


brought to us in large wooden platters, consisting 
sometimes of sagamite, sometimes of whole corn, 
sometimes of a piece of dog s flesh. The entire day 
was spent in feasting. These people are very 
obliging and liberal with what they have; but 
they are wretchedly provided with food, for they 
dare not go and hunt wild cattle, on account of 
Their Enemies. It is true that they have an 
abundance of indian corn, which they sow at all 
seasons. We saw at the same time some that 
was ripe, some other that had only sprouted, and 
some again in the Milk, so that they sow it three 
times a year. They cook it in great earthern jars, 
which are very well made. 40 They have also plates 
of baked earth which they use in various ways. 
The men go naked, and wear Their hair short ; they 
pierce their noses, from which, as well as from Their 
ears, hang beads. The women are clad in wretched 
skins; they knot Their hair in two tresses which 
they throw behind their ears, and have no ornaments 
with which to adorn themselves. Their feasts are 
given without any ceremony. They offer the 
Guests large dishes, from which all eat at discretion 
and offer what is left to one another. Their language 
is exceedingly difficult, and I could succeed in pro 
nouncing only a few words notwithstanding all my 
efforts. Their Cabins, which are made of bark, are 
Long and Wide ; they sleep at the two ends, which 
are raised two feet above the ground. They keep 
Their corn in large baskets made of Canes, or in 
gourds as large as half-barrels. They know nothing 
of the Beaver. Their wealth consists in the skins 
of wild cattle. They never see snow in their coun 
try, and recognize The winter only through The 


Leur langue est extremement difficile, et je ne 
pouvois venir about d en prononcer quelques motz, 
quelque effort que je pusse faire. Leurs Cabannes 
qui sont faites d escorce sont Longues et Larges, ils 
couchent au deux boutz, elevez de deux pieds de 
terre; Ils y gardent Leurs bled dans de grands 
pannier faits de Cannes ou dans des gourdes grosses 
comme des demy bariques. Ils ne scavent ce que 
c est que le Castor. Leurs richesses consistent en 
peaux de boeufs sauvages; ils ne voient jamais de 
neige chez eux, et ne connoissent L hyver que par 
Les pluyes qui y tombent plus sou vent qu en este; 
nous n y avons pas mange" de fruictz que des melons 
d eau. S ils scavoient cultiver leur terre, ils en 
auroient de toutes les sortes. 

Le soir les anciens firent un conseil secret dans le 
dessein que quelqu uns avoient de nous casser la teste 
pour nous piller, mais le Chef rompit toutes ces 
mene es nous ayant envoye querir pour marque de 
parfaitte asseurance il dansa le calumet devant nous, 
de la fafons que j ay descript cy dessus, et pour nous 
oster toute crainte, il m en fit present. 

Nous fismes Mr Jolliet et Moy un aultre Conseil, 
pour deliberer sur ce que nous avions a faire si nous 
pousserions oultre ou si nous nous contenterions de 
la decouverte que nous avions faite. Apres avoir 
attend vement considere" que nous n estions pas loing 
du golphe Mexique dont le bassin estant a la haulteur 
de 31 degrez 60 minutes, et nous nous trouvant a 33, 
40 minutes, nous ne pouvions pas en estre eloignez 
plus de 2 ou 3 journeys qu indubitablement la riviere 
Missisipi avoit sa decharge dans la floride ou golphe 
Mexique, n on pas du coste de L est dans la Vir- 


rains, which there fall more frequently than in sum 
mer. We ate no other fruit there than watermelons. 
If they knew how to till their soil, they would have 
fruits of all kinds. 

In the evening, the elders held a secret council, in 
regard to the design entertained by some to break 
our heads and rob us ; but the Chief put a stop to all 
these plots. After sending for us, he danced the 
calumet before us, in the manner I have already 
described, as a token of our entire safety; and, to- 
relieve us of all fear, he made me a present of it. 

Monsieur Jolliet and I held another Council, to 
deliberate upon what we should do whether we 
should push on, or remain content with the discovery 
which we had made. After attentively considering 
that we were not far from the gulf of Mexico, the basin 
of which is at the latitude of 3 1 degrees 60 minutes, 
while we were at 33 degrees 40 minutes, we judged 
that we could not be more than 2 or 3 days journey 
from it ; and that, beyond a doubt, the Missisipi river 
discharges into the florida or Mexican gulf, and not to 
The east in Virginia, whose sea-coast is at 34 degrees 
latitude, which we had passed, without, however > 
having as yet reached the sea, or to the west in Cali 
fornia, because in that case our route would have 
been to The west, or the west-southwest, whereas 
we had always continued It toward the south. We 
further considered that we exposed ourselves to the 
risk of losing the results of this voyage, of which 
we could give no information if we proceeded to 
fling ourselves into the hands of the Spaniards who, 
without doubt, would at least have detained us as 
captives. Moreover, we saw very plainly that we 
were not in a condition to resist Savages allied to 


ginie, dont le bord de la mer est a 34 degrez qtie 
nous avons passez sans neanmoins estre encor arrives 
a la mer, non pas aussi du cost6 de 1 oiiest a la Cali- 
fornie, parceque nous devions pour cela avoir nostre 
route a L ouest, ou a 1 ouest soroiiest et nous L avons 
tousjour en au sud. Nous de plus que 
nous nous exposions a perdre la fruict de ce voyage 
duquel nous ne pourrions pas donner aucune connois- 
sance, si nous allions nous jetter entre les mains des 
Espagnols qui sans double nous auroient du moins 
retenus captifs. En oultre, nous voyons bien que 
nous n estions pas en estat de resister a des Sauvages 
allies Les Europeans, nombreux, et experts a tirer 
du fusil qui infestoient continuellement le bas de 
cette riviere. Enfin, nous avions pris toutes les con- 
noissances qu on peut souhaiter dans cette decouverte 
toutes ces raisons firent conclure pour Le Retour, 
que vous declarames aux sauvages et pour lequel 
nous nous preparames apres un jour de repos. 


APRES un mois du Navigation en descendant sur 
Missisipi depuis le 42 d degre jusqu au 34 e et 
plus, et apres avoir publi6 1 Evangile, autant que j ay 
pu, aux Nations que j ay rencontrees, nous partons 
le i7 e Juillet du village des akensea pour retourner 
sur nos pas. Nous remontons done a Missisipi qui 
nous donne bien de la peine a refouler ses Courans, 
il est vray que nous le quittons vers les 38* degrSs 
pour entrer dans une aultre riviere qui nous abbrege 
de beaucoup Le chemin et nous conduit avec peu de 
peine dans le lac des Ilinois 


The Europeans, who were numerous, and expert in 
firing guns, and who continually infested the lower 
part of the river. Finally, we had obtained all the 
information that could be desired in regard to this 
discovery. All these reasons induced us to decide 
upon Returning ; this we announced to the savages, 
and, after a day s rest, made our preparations for it. 


AFTER a month s Navigation, while descending Mis- 
sisipi from the 42nd to the 34th degree, and 
beyond, and after preaching the Gospel as well as I 
could to the Nations that I met, we start on the i/th 
of July from the village of the akensea, to retrace our 
steps. We therefore reascend the Missisipi which 
gives us much trouble in breasting its Currents. It is 
true that we leave it, at about the 38th degree, to 
enter another river, which greatly shortens our road, 
and takes us with but little effort to the lake of the 

We have seen nothing like this river that we enter, 
as regards its fertility of soil, its prairies and woods ; 
its cattle, elk, deer, wildcats, bustards, swans, ducks, 
parroquets, and even beaver. There are many small 
lakes and rivers. That on which we sailed is wide, 
deep, and still, for 65 leagues. In the spring and 
during part of The summer there is only one portage 
of half a league. 41 We found on it a village of Ilinois 
called Kaskasia, consisting of 74 Cabins. They 
received us very well, and obliged me to promise 
that I would return to instruct them. One of the 
chiefs of this nation, with his young men, escorted 
us to the Lake of the Ilinois, whence, at last, at The 


Nous n avons rien vue de semblable a cette riviere 
ou nous entrons pour la bonte de terres, des prairies, 
des bois, des bceufs, des cerfs, des chevreux, des 
chatz sauvages, des outardes, des cygnes, des canards, 
des perroquetz, et mesmes des castors, il y a quan- 
tite" de petitz lacs, et de petites rivieres. Celle sur 
laquelle nous navigeons est large, profonde, paisible, 
pendant 65 lieues, le printemps et une partie de 
L este on ne fait de transport que pendant une demi 
lieue. Nous y trouvames une bourgade d llinois 
nomine" Kaskasia compose e de 74 Cabanes, ils nous 
y ont tres bien receus, et ils m ont oblige" de leur 
promettre que je retournerois pour les instruire. Un 
des chefs de cette nation, avec sa jeunesse, nous est 
venu conduire jusqu au Lac des Ilinois d ou enfin 
nous nous sommes rendus dans la baye des puantz 
sur La fin de Septembre, d ou nous estions partis 
vers le commencement de Juin. 

Quand tout ce voyage n auroit cause" que le salut 
d une ame, j estimerois toutes mes peines bien 
recompense s, et c est ce que jay sujet de presumer, 
car lorsque ie retournois nous passames par les Ilinois 
de Pefclarea je fus trois jours a leur publier la foy dans 
toutes leurs cabanes, apres quoy comme nous nous 
embarquions, on m apporta au bord de L eau un 
enfant moribond que je baptisay un peu avant qu il 
mourut par une providence admirable pour le salut 
de cette ame Innocente. 


end of September, we reached the bay des puantz, 
from which we had started at the beginning of June. 
Had this voyage resulted in the salvation of even 
one soul, I would consider all my troubles well re 
warded, and I have reason to presume that such is 
the case. For, when I was returning, we passed 
through the Ilinois of Peouarea, 43 and during three 
days I preached the faith in all their Cabins ; after 
which, while we were embarking, a dying child was 
brought to me at The water s edge, and I baptized 
it shortly before it died, through an admirable act of 
providence for the salvation of that Innocent soul. 


Journal incomplet du P. Jacques Marquette, 

adresse au R. P. Claude Dablon, 

superieur des Missions. 



Pax X 1 . 

Ayant este contraint de demeurer a f 1 . Fran 
cois tout 1 este, acaufe de quelque incommodite, en 
ayant este guery dez le mois de feptembre, I y atten- 
dois 1 arriuee de nos gens au retour de la bas pour 
f9auoir ceque ie ferois pour mon hyuernement; lef- 
quels m en apporterent les ordres pour mon uoyage a 
la miffion de la Conception des Ilinois, ayant fatiffait 
aux fentiments de V R pour les coppies de mon iour- 
nal touchant la Riuiere de mimfipi, Ie partis auec 
Pierre Porteret et lacque [blank space in MS.~\ le 25 
oct 1674 fur les midy le uent nous contraignit de 
coucher a la fortie de la Riuiere ou les Pteatamis 
f ailembloient, les anciens n ayant pas uoulu qu on 
allaft du coftez des Ilinois, de peur que la ieuneffe 
amaffant des robbes auec les marchandifes qu ils ont 
apportez de la bas, et chaffant au Caftor ne uoulut 
defcendre le printemps qu ils croient auoir fuiet de 
craindre les nadtfeffi 

26 oct. paflant au uillage nous ny trouuafmes plus que 

deux cabannes qui partoient pour aller hyuerner a 
la gafparde, nous apprifmes que 5 canots de PtfteHa- 
tamis et 4 d Ilinois estoient partis pour aller aux 

1673-77] MARQUETTE S JOURNAL 165- 

Unfinished Journal of Father Jacques Marquette, 

addressed to the Reverend Father Claude 

Dablon, superior of the Missions. 

Pax Christ! . 

Having been compelled to remain at st. 
Francois throughout the summer on account of an 
ailment, of which I was cured in the month of Sep 
tember, I awaited there the return of our people from 
down below, in order to learn what I was to do with 
regard to my wintering. They brought me orders 
to proceed to the mission of la Conception among the 
Ilinois. After complying with Your Reverence s 
request for copies of my journal concerning the 
missisipi River, I departed with Pierre Porteret and 
Jacque \blank space in MS. ], on the 25th of October, 
1674, about noon. The wind compelled us to pass 
the night at the outlet of the River, where the Poute- 
watamis were assembling ; for the elders would not 
allow them to go in the direction of the Ilinois, lest 
the young men, after collecting robes with the goods 
that they brought from below, and after hunting 
Beaver, might seek to go down in the spring ; because 
they have reason to fear the nadouessi. 

On passing the village, we found only two cabins 2 6th of 
of savages, who were going to spend the winter at la October, 
gasparde. We learned that 5 canoes of Poutewa- 
tamis, and 4 of Ilinois, had started to go to the 


27 nous fufmes arrertez le matin par la pluye, nous 
eufmes beau temps et calme 1 aprefdifnee que nous 
rencontrafmes dans 1 ance a 1 efturgeon les fauuages 
qui marchoient deuant nous 

28 on arriue au portage, un canot qui auoit pris le 
deuant eft caufe que qu on ne tue point de gibier; 
nous commengons notre portage et allons coucher de 
1 autre bord, ou le mauuais temps nous fift bien 
de la peine Pierre n arriue qu a une heure de 
nuit f efgarant par d un fentier ou il n auoit iamais 
efte, apres la pluye et le tonnerre, il tombe de la 

2 9 ayant efte contraint de changer de cabannage, on 
continue de porter les paquets, le portage a pres 
d une lieue , et affez incommode en plufieurs endroits, 
les Ilinois feftant affemblez le foir dans notre 
cabanne demandent, qu on ne les quitte pas, comme 
nous pouuions auoir befoin d eux et qu ils connoiffent 
mieux le lac que nous, on leur promet 

3 les femmes Ilinoifes acheuent le matin notre 
portage, on est arreste par le uent il n y a point 
de befles 

3 1 on parte par un aflez beau temps, et Ton uient 
coucher a une petite riuiere. le chemin de 1 ance a 
1 efturgeon par terre est tres difficile, nous n en 
marchions pas loing 1 automne paffe, lorfque nous 
entrafmes dans le bois 

Ayant dit la f te . meffe on uient coucher dans une 
* riuiere, d ou Ton ua aux Ptftetfatamis par un beau 
chemin; chachagtfeffitf Ilinois fort confidere parmy 
fa nation, a raifon en partie qu il fe mefle des 
affaires de la traitte arriue la nuit auec un cheureux 
fur fon dos, dont il nous fait part. 


We were delayed in the morning by rain; in the 27. 
afternoon, we had fine, calm weather, so that at stur 
geon bay we joined the savages, who traveled ahead 
of us. 

We reached the portage. 43 A canoe that had gone 28. 
ahead prevented us from killing any game. We 
began our portage and slept on the other shore, 
where the stormy weather gave us much trouble. 
Pierre did not arrive until an hour after dark, hav 
ing lost his way on a path where he had never been. 
After the rain and thunder, snow fell. 

Being compelled to change our camping-ground, 29 . 
we continue to carry our packs. The portage covers 
nearly a league, and is very difficult in many places. 
The Ilinois assemble in the evening in our cabin, 
and ask us not to leave them, as we may need them, 
and they know the lake better than we do. We 
promise them this. 

The Ilinois women complete our portage in the 30. 
morning. We are delayed by the wind. There are 
no animals. 

We start, with tolerably fair weather, and sleep at 3 - 
a small river. The road by land from sturgeon bay 
is very difficult. Last autumn, we were traveling 
not far from it when we entered the forest. 

After I said holy mass, we came for the night to November 
a river, whence one goes to the Poutewatamis by a 
good road. Chachagwessiou, an Ilinois greatly 
esteemed among his nation, partly because he en 
gages in the fur trade, arrived at night with a deer 
on his back, of which he gave us a share. 

After holy mass, we travel all day in very fine a. 

weather. We kill two cats, which are almost noth 
ing but fat. 


2 La f te . meffe dit, nous marchons toute la iournee 
par un fort beau temps, on tue deux chats qui n ont 
quafi que de la graiffe 

3 comme i estois par terre marchant fur le beau 
fable tout le bord de 1 eau eftoit d herbes femblables 
a celles qu on pefche aux retz a f l . Ignace, mais ne 
pouuant paffer une riuiere, nos gens y entrent pour 
m embarquer mais on n en put fortir acaufe de la 
lame, tous les autres canots paffent a la referue d un 
feul qui uient auec nous 

4 on est arreste II y a apparence qu il y a quelque 
Ifle au large le gibier y paffant le foir 

5 nous eufmes affez de peine de fortir de la Riuiere 
fur le midy, on trouua les fauuages dans une riuiere, 
ou ie pris occaGon d inflruire les Ilinois, a raifon d un 
feftin que na&afking&e uenoit de faire a une peau 
de loup. 

6 on fift une belle iournee, les fauuages eftant a la 
chaffe defcouurirent quelques piftes dhommes cequi 
oblige d arrefter le lendemain 

9 on mit a terre fur les 2 heures acaufe d un beau 

cabannage, ou Ton fuft arrefte 5 iours, acaufe de la 
grande agitation du lac fans aucun uent enfuitte par 
la neige, qui fufl le lendemain fondue par le foleil et 
un uent du large. 

75- apres auoir fait affez de chemin on cabanne dans 

un bel endroit ou Ton eft arrefte 3 iours Pierre 
raccommode le fuzil d un fauuage, neige tombe, la 
nuit et fond le iour 

20 on couche aux equors affez mal cabannez les fau 

uages demeurent derriere durant qu on eft arrefte 
du uent 2 iours et demy Pierre allant dans le bois 
trouue la prairie a 20 lieues du portage, il paffe aufli 


While I am ashore, walking on fine sand, the j. 
whole water s edge being covered with grass similar 
to that which is hauled up by the nets at st. Ignace, 
I come to a river which I am unable to cross. Our 
people enter it, in order to take me on board; but 
we are unable to go out, on account of the waves. 
All the other canoes go on, excepting one, which 
came with us. 

We are delayed. There seems to be an Island out * 

in the lake, for the game go there at night. 

We had considerable difficulty in getting out of the 5- 
River at noon. We found the savages in a river, where 
I seized the opportunity of instructing the Ilinois, 
on account of a feast that nawaskingwe had just 
given to a wolfskin. 

We performed a good day s journey. While the 6. 

savages were hunting, they discovered some tracks 
of men, and this compelled us to stay over on the 
following day. 

We landed about 2 o clock, because there was a 9. 

good camping-ground. We were detained there for 
5 days, on account of the great agitation of the lake, 
although without any wind; and afterward of the 
snow, which was melted on the following day by the 
sun, and a breeze from the lake. 

After proceeding a sufficient distance, we camp at f j. 
a favorable place, where we are detained 3 days. 
Pierre mends a savage s gun. Snow falls at night, 
and thaws during the day. 

We sleep near the bluffs, and are very poorly 20. 
sheltered. The savages remain behind while we 
are delayed 2 days and a half by the wind. Pierre 
goes into the woods, and finds the prairie 20 leagues 
from the portage. He also goes through a fine canal 


fur tm beau canal comme en v.oute haul de la hau 
teur d un homme, ou il y auoit un pied d eau 

33 eftant embarque fur le midy nous eufmes affez de 

peine de gagner une riuiere, le froid commenca pour 
lors, et plus d un pied de neige couurit la terre qui eft 
toufiours depuis demeure, on fust arreste la 3 iours 
durant lefquels Pierre tua un cheureux 3 outardes 
et 3 cocqs d Inde qui estoient fort bons, les autres 
pafferent iufques aux prairies, un fauuage ayant 
defcouuert quelques cabannes nous uint trouuer, 
Jacques y alia le lendemain auec luy 2 chaffeurs me 
uinrent auffi uoir, c efloient des mafKtftens au nom- 
bre de 8 ou 9 cabannes, lefquelles f eftoient feparez 
les uns des autres pour pouuoir uiure, auec des 
fatigues prefque impoffibles a des frangois ils 
marchent tout Ihyuer, dans des chemins tres diffi- 
ciles, les terres eftant plaines de ruiffeaux de petits 
lacs et de marefts, ils font tres mal cabannez, et 
mangent ou ieufnent felon les lieux ou ils se rencon- 
trent ; eftant arrefte par le uent nous remarquafmes 
qu il y auoit de grandes battures au large ou la lame 
brifoient continuellement : ce fuft la que ie fentis 
quelque atteinte d un flux de uentre. 

27 nous eusmes affez de peine de fortir de la riuiere, 

et ayant fait enuiron 3 lieues nous trouuafmes les 
fauuages qui auoient tuez des boeufs, et 3 ilinois qui 
eftoient uenu du uillage, nous fufmes arreftez la 
d un uent de terre des lames prodigieufes qui uenoient 
du large, et du froid, 

Decembre on deuance les fauuages pour pouuoir dire la 
f te . meffe, 

3 ayant dit la f te . meffe eftant embarque nous 

fufmes contrains de gagner une pointe pour pouuoir 
mettre a terre acaufe des bourguignons 


which is vaulted, as it were, to the height of a man, in 
which there is water a foot deep. 

After embarking at noon, we experienced some 23. 
difficulty in reaching a river. Then the cold began, 
and more than a foot of snow covered the ground; 
it has remained ever since. We were delayed for 3 
days, during which Pierre killed a deer, 3 bustards, 
and 3 Turkeys, which were very good. The others 
proceeded to the prairies. A savage discovered 
some cabins, and came to get us. Jacques went 
there on the following day, with him; 2 hunters 
also came to see me. They were maskoutens, to 
the number of 8 or 9 cabins, who had separated from 
the others in order to obtain subsistence. With 
fatigues almost impossible to frenchmen, they travel 
throughout the winter over very bad roads, the 
land abounding in streams, small lakes, and swamps. 
Their cabins are wretched ; and they eat or starve, 
according to the places where they happen to be. 
Being detained by the wind, we noticed that there 
were great shoals out in the lake, over which the 
waves broke continually. Here I had an attack of 

We had some trouble in getting out of the river; ^7. 
then, after proceeding about 3 leagues, we found the 
savages, who had killed some cattle, and 3 ilinois 
who had come from the village. We were delayed 
there by a wind from the land, by heavy waves from 
the lake, and by cold. 

We went ahead of the savages, so that I might December 
celebrate holy mass. 

After saying holy mass, we embarked, and were 3. 

compelled to make for a point, so that we could land, 
on account of floating masses of ice. 


4 nous partifmes heureufement pour uenir a la 

riuiere du portage qui eftoit gelee d un demy pied, 
ou il y auoit plus de neige que par tout ailleurs, 
comme auffi plus de pifte de beftes et de cocqs 

La nauigation du lac eft affez belle d un portage a 
1 autre, n y ayant aucune trauerfe a faire, et pouuant 
mettre a terre par tout, moyennant qu on ne foit point 
opiniaftre a uouloir marcher dans les lames et de 
grand uent, les terres qui le bordent ne ualent 
rien, excepte quand on eft aux prairies, on trouue 8 
ou 10 riuieres affez belles, la chaffe du cheureux eft 
tres belle a mefure qu on f efloigne des Ptftetfatamis, 
/*, comme on commen9oit hier a traifner pour appro- 

cher du portage les Ilinois ayant quittez les Ptftetfa- 
tamis arriuerent auec bien de la peine nous ne 
pufmes dire la f te . meffe le iour de la Conception 
acaufe du mauuais temps et du froid, durant notre 
feiour a 1 entree de la riuiere Pierre et lacques 
tuerent 3 boeufs et 4 cheureux dont 1 un courut affez 
loing ayant le cceur couppe en 2. on fe contenta de 
tuer 3 ou 4 cocqs d inde de plufieurs qui uenoient 
autour de notre cabanne, parcequ ils mouroient quafi. 
perdrix. de faim ; lacques apporta une perdrix qu il auoit 
tuez, femblable en tout a celles de France, excepte 
qu elle auoit comme deux aiflerons de 3 ou 4 aifles 
longues d un doigt proche la tefte, dont elles cou- 
urent les 2 coftez du col ou il n y a point de plume 
14- estant cabannez proche le portage a 2 lieues dans 

la riuiere nous refolufmes d hyuerner la estant dans 
rimpoffibilite de paffer outre estant trop embar- 
raffe, et mon incommodite ne me permettant pas de 
beaucoup fatiguer. plufieurs Ilinois pafferent hier 


We started with a favoring wind, and reached the 4. 

river of the portage, which was frozen to the depth 
of half a foot ; there was more snow there than else 
where, as well as more tracks of animals and Turkeys. 

Navigation on the lake is fairly good from one 
portage to the other, for there is no crossing to be 
made, and one can land anywhere, unless one persist 
in going on when the waves are high and the wind is 
strong. The land bordering it is of no value, except 
on the prairies. There are 8 or 10 quite fine rivers. 
Deer-hunting is very good, as one goes away from 
the Poutewatamis. 

As we began yesterday to haul our baggage in 12. 
order to approach the portage, the Ilinois who had 
left the Poutewatamis arrived, with great difficulty. 
We were unable to celebrate holy mass on the day 
of the Conception, owing to the bad weather and 
cold. During our stay at the entrance of the river, 
Pierre and Jacques killed 3 cattle and 4 deer, one of 
which ran some distance with its heart split in 2. 
We contented ourselves with killing 3 or 4 turkeys, 
out of many that came around our cabin because they 
were almost dying of hunger. Jacques brought in 
a partridge that he had killed, exactly like those of Partridge. 
France except that it had two ruffs, as it were, of 
3 or 4 feathers as long as a finger, near the head, 
covering the 2 sides of the neck where there are 
no feathers. 

Having encamped near the portage, 2 leagues up i 4 . 
the river, we resolved to winter there, as it was im 
possible to go farther, since we were too much hin 
dered and my ailment did not permit me to give my 
self much fatigue. Several Ilinois passed yesterday, 
on their way to carry their furs to nawaskingwe; 


pour aller porter leur pelleterie a natfafKingtfe, auf- 
quels on donne un boeufs et un cheureux que lacque 
auoit tue le iour d auparauant, ie ne penfe pas auoir 
ueu de fauuage plus affame de petun Frangois qu eux, 
ils uinrent letter a nos pieds des caftors pour en 
auoir quelque bout, mais nous leur rendifmes en leur 
en donnant quelque pipe parceque nous n auions pas 
encore conclu ft nous paflerions outre, 

is Chachagtfeffitf et les autres Ilinois nous quitterent 

pour aller trouuer leur gens, et leur donner les 
marchandifes qu ils auoient apportez pour auoir leur 
robbes en quoy ils fe gouuernent comme les trait- 
teurs, et ne donnent guere plus que les Frangois ; ie 
les inftruifis auant leur depart, remettant au prin- 
temps de tenir confeil quand ie ferois au uillage ; ils 
nous traitterent 3 belles robbes de boeuf pour une 
coudee de petun, lefquelles nous ont beaucoup ferui 
cet hyuer, eftant ainft defbarailez, nous difmes La 
meffe de la Conception: depuis le 14 mon incom- 
modite fe tourna en flux de fang. 

jo lacque arriua du uillage des Ilinois qui n eftoit 

qu a fix lieues d icy ou ils auoient faim le froid et la 
neige les empefchant de chaffer, quelques uns ayant 
aduerti la Toupine et le chirurgien que nous eftions 
icy, et ne pouuant quitter leur cabanne auoient telle- 
ment donnez la peur aux fauuages croyant que nous 
aurions faim demeurant icy que lacque euft bien de 
la peine d empef cher 1 5 ieunes gens de uenir pour 
emporter toute notre affaire. 

Januter Auffitoft que les 2 frangois fceurent que mon mal 

1675 m empefchoit d aller chez eux le chirurgien uint icy 

auec un fauuage pour nous apporter des bluets et du 

bled; ils ne font qu a 18 lieues d icy dans un beau 


we gave them one of the cattle and one of the deer 
that Jacque had killed on the previous day. I do 
not think that I have ever seen any savages more 
eager for French tobacco than they. They came and 
threw beaver-skins at our feet, to get some pieces of 
it ; but we returned these, giving them some pipefuls 
of the tobacco because we had not yet decided 
whether we would go farther. 

Chachagwessiou and the other Ilinois left us, to //. 
go and join their people and give them the goods 
that they had brought, in order to obtain their robes. 
In this they act like the traders, and give hardly any 
more than do the French. I instructed them before 
their departure, deferring the holding of a council 
until the spring, when I should be in their village. 
They traded us 3 fine robes of ox-skins for a cubit 
of tobacco ; these were very useful to us during the 
winter. Being thus rid of them, we said The mass 
of the Conception. After the Hth, my disease turned 
into a bloody flux. 

Jacque arrived from the Ilinois village, which is 30. 
only six leagues from here ; there they were suffering 
from hunger, because the cold and snow prevented 
them from hunting. Some of them notified la Tou- 
pine 44 and the surgeon that we were here; and, as 
they could not leave their cabin, they had so fright 
ened the savages, believing that we would suffer from 
hunger if we remained here, that Jacque had much 
difficulty in preventing 15 young men from coming 
to carry away all our belongings. 

As soon as the 2 frenchmen learned that my ill- January, 
ness prevented me from going to them, the surgeon /6 75* 
came here with a savage, to bring us some blueber 
ries and corn. They are only 18 leagues from here, 


lieu de chaffe pour les boeufs et les cheureux et les 
cocqs d inde qui y font excellents, ils auoient auffi 
amaffez des uiures en nous attendant; et auoient 
fait entendre aux fauuages que leur cabanne eftoit a 
la robbe noire, et on peut dire qu ils ont fait et dit 
tout ce qu on pouuoit attendre d eux; le chirurgien 
ayant icy feiourne pour faire fes deuotions; I en- 
uoyay lacque auec luy pour dire aux Ilinois qui 
efloient proche de la, que mon incommodite m em- 
pefchoit de les aller uoir, et que i aurois mefme de la 
peine d y aller le printemps li elle continuoit 

24 lacque retourna, auec un fac de bled et d autres 

rafraifchiffement que les Fran9ois luy auoient donnez 
pour moy: il apporta auffi les langues et de la 
uiande de deux boeufs qu un fauuage et luy auoient 
tuez proches d icy ; mais toutes les belles f e fentent 
du mauuais temps 

a6 3 Ilinois nous apporterent de la part des anciens 2 

facs de bled de la uiande feche, des citroui lles et 12 
caftors, i. pour me faire une natte, 2. pour me 
demander de la poudre, 3 pour que nous n euffions 
pas faim, 4 pour auoir quelque peu de marchan- 
difes; ieleur refpondis, i nt . que i eftois uenu pour les 
inftruire, en leur parlantde la priere, &c. 2 nt . que ie 
ne leur donnerois point de poudre, puifque nous taf- 
chions de mettre par tout la paix, et que ie ne uoulois 
qu ils commen9affent la guerre avec les muiamis. 
3 nt . que nous n apprehendions point la faim, 4 nt . 
que i encouragerois les fran9ois a leur apporter des 
marchandifes, et qu il falloit qu ils satiffiffent ceux 
qui eitoient chez eux pour la raffade qu on leur auoit 
pris, dez que le chirurgien full part) T pour uenir icy. 
comme ils eftoient uenus de 20 lieues, pour les payer 


in a fine place for hunting cattle, deer, and turkeys, 
which are excellent there. They had also collected 
provisions while waiting for us ; and had given the 
savages to understand that their cabin belonged to 
the black gown ; and it may be said that they have 
done and said all that could be expected from them. 
After the surgeon had spent some time here, in order 
to perform his devotions, I sent Jacque with him to 
tell the Ilinois near that place that my illness 
prevented me from going to see them ; and that I 
would even have some difficulty in going there 
in the spring, if it continued. 

Jacque returned with a sack of corn and other deli- + 
cacies, which the French had given him for me. He 
also brought the tongues and flesh of two cattle, 
which a savage and he had killed near here. But 
all the animals feel the bad weather. 

3 Ilinois brought us, on behalf of the elders, 2 26. 
sacks of corn, some dried meat, pumpkins, and 12 
beaver- skins: ist, to make me a mat; 2nd, to ask me 
for powder; 3rd, that we might not be hungry; 4th, 
to obtain a few goods. I replied: ist, that I had 
come to instruct them, by speaking to them of 
prayer, etc. ; 2nd, that I would give them no powder, 
because we sought to restore peace everywhere, and 
I did not wish them to begin war with the muiamis; 
3rd, that we feared not hunger; 4th, that I would 
encourage the french to bring them goods, and that 
they must give satisfaction to those who were among 
them for the beads which they had taken as soon as 
the surgeon started to come here. As they had come 
a distance of 20 leagues, I gave them, in order to 
reward them for their trouble and for what they had 
brought me, a hatchet, 2 knives, 3 clasp-knives, 







de leur peine et de ce qu ils m auoient apportez ie 
leur donnay tine hache, 2 couteaux, 3 iambettes, 10 
braffes de raffade, et 2 mirouirs doubles, et leur 
difant que ie tafcherois d aller au uillage feulement 
pour quelques iours fi mon incommodite continuoit, 
ils me dirent de prendre courage de demeurer et de 
mourir dans leur pays et qu on leur auoit dit que 
i y refterois pour longtemps 

Depuis que nous nous fommes addreffez a la f te . 
Vierge Immacule e que nous auons commencez une 
neufuaine par une meffe a laquelle Pierre et lacque 
qui font tout ce qu ils peuuent pour me foulager 
ont communiez pour demander a Dieu la fante, mon 
flux de fang m a quitte, il ne me refte qu une foi- 
bleffe d eftomac, ie commence a me porter beaucoup 
mieux et a reprendre mes forces; il ne cabanne d Ili- 
nois qui f eftoit rangee proche de nous depuis un 
mois une partie ont repris Ie chemin des Ptft. et 
quelques uns font encore au bord du lac ou ils 
attendent que la nauigation foit libre ils emportent 
des lettres pour nos P de f l . Francois 

nous auons eu Ie temps de remarquer les mareez 
qui uiennent du lac lefquels hauffent et baiifent 
plufieurs fois par iour et quoy qu il n y paroiffe 
aucune abry dans Ie lac, on a ueu les glaces aller 
contre Ie uent, ces mareez nous rendoient 1 eau bonne 
ou mauuaife parceque celle qui uient d en hault coule 
des prairies et de petits ruiffeaux, les cheureux qui 
font en quantite uers Ie bord du lac font fi maigres 
qu on a este contraint d en laiffer quelques uns de 
ceux qu on auoit tuez 

on tue plufieurs perdrix dont il n y a que les mals 
qui ayent des aiflerons au col les femelles n en 




10 brasses of glass beads, and 2 double mirrors, 
telling them that I would endeavor to go to the 
village, for a few days only, if my illness con 
tinued. They told me to take courage, and to 
remain and die in their country ; and that they had 
been informed that I would remain there for a long 

Since we addressed ourselves to the blessed Virgin 
Immaculate, and commenced a novena with a mass, 
at which Pierre and Jacque, who do everything they 
can to relieve me, received communion, to ask 
God to restore my health, my bloody flux has left 
me, and all that remains is a weakness of the stom 
ach. I am beginning to feel much better, and to 
regain my strength. Out of a cabin of Ilinois, who 
encamped near us for a month, a portion have again 
taken the road to the Poutewatamis, and some are 
still on the lake-shore, where they wait until naviga 
tion is open. They bear letters for our Fathers of 
st. Francois. 

We have had opportunity to observe the tides 
coming in from the lake, which rise and fall several 
times a day; and, although there seems to be no 
shelter in the lake, we have seen the ice going 
against the wind. These tides made the water good 
or bad, because that which flows from above comes 
from prairies and small streams. The deer, which 
are plentiful near the lake-shore, are so lean that we 
had to abandon some of those which we had killed. 

We killed several partridges, only the males of 
which had ruffs on the neck, the females not having 
any. These partridges are very good, but not like 
those of f ranee. 







ayant point ces perdrix font ailez bonnes mais non 
pas comme celles de france. 

30. le uent de nord ayant empefche le degel iufques 

au 25 de Mars il commenja par un uent de fud, dez 
le lendemain le gibier commen5a de paroiftre on 
tua 30 tourtres que ie troimay meilleures que celles 
de la bas mais plus petites, tant les uieilles que les 
ieunes; le 28 les glaces fe rompirent et f arreflerent 
au defTus de nous, le 29 les eaux courent si fort 
que nous n eufmes que le temps de defcabanner au 
pluftot, mettre nos affaires fur des arbres, et tafcher 
de chercher a coucher fur quelque but 1 eau nous 
gagnant prefque toute la nuit, mais ayant un peu gele, 
et estant diminue comme nous estions aupres de nos 
paquets, la digue uient de fe rompre, et les glaces a 
f efcouler et parceque les eaux remontent defia nous 
allons nous embarquer pour continuer notre route 

La f te . Vierge Immaculee a pris un tel foin de nous 
durant notre hyuernement que rien ne nous a manque" 
pour les uiures, ayant encore un grand fac de bled de 
refte de la uiande et de la graiffe; nous auons auffi 
uefcu fort doucement, mon mal ne m ayant point 
empefche de dire la f te . meffe tous les iours; nous 
n auons point pu garder du Carefme que les 
Vendredys et famedys; 

3 i eftant hier party nous fifmes 3 lieues dans la 

riuiere en remontant fans trouuer aucun portage, on 
traifna peuteftre enuiron un demy arpant, outre cette 
defcharge la riuiere en a une autre par ou nous 
debuons defcendre, il n y a que les terres bien hautes 
qui ne foient point inondeez, celle ou nous fommes 
a cru plus de 12 pieds ce fut d icy que nous com- 
mengafmes notre portage II y a 18 mois; les outardes 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S JO URN A L 181 

The north wind delayed the thaw until the 30 
2 5th of March, when it set in with a south wind. 
On the very next day, game began to make its 
appearance. We killed 30 pigeons, which I found 
better than those down the great river ; but they are 
smaller, both old and young. On the 28th, the ice 
broke up, and stopped above us. On the 29th, the 
waters rose so high that we had barely time to 
decamp as fast as possible, putting our goods in the 
trees, and trying to sleep on a hillock. The water 
gained on us nearly all night, but there was a slight 
freeze, and the water fell a little, while we were near 
our packages. The barrier has just broken, the ice 
has drifted away ; and, because the water is already 
rising, we are about to embark to continue our 

The blessed Virgin Immaculate has taken such 
care of us during our wintering that we have not 
lacked provisions, and have still remaining a large 
sack of corn, with some meat and fat. We also 
lived very pleasantly for my illness did not prevent 
me from saying holy mass every day. We were 
unable to keep Lent, except on Fridays and Satur 

We started yesterday and traveled 3 leagues up j/ 
the river without finding any portage. We hauled 
our goods probably about half an arpent. Besides 
this discharge, the river has another one by which 
we are to go down. The very high lands alone are 
not flooded. At the place where we are, the water 
has risen more than 12 feet. This is where we 
began our portage 18 months Ago. Bustards and 
ducks pass continually ; we contented ourselves with 
7. The ice, which is still drifting down, keeps us 


et les canards paffent contirmellement on f eft 
contente de 7, les glaces qui deriuent encore nous font 
icy demeurer ne fcachant pas en quel eftat eft le bas 
de la riuiere 
Auril comme ie ne f9ay point encore fi ie demeureray 

1 cet efte au uillage ou non acaufe de mon flux de 

uentre, nous laiffons icy une partie de ce dont nous 
pouuons nous pafler et fur tout un fac de bled tandis 
qu un grand uent de fud nous arrefte, nous efperons 
aller demain ou font les Frangois, diftant de 15 
lieues d icy 

A les grands uents et le froid nous empefchent de 

marcher, les deux lacs par ou nous auons paffez 
font plains d outardes d oyes de canards de grues 
et d autres gibiers que nous ne connoiffons point, 
les rapides font affez dangereux en quelques 
endroits, nous uenons de rencontrer le chirurgien 
auec un fauuage qui montoit auec une canottee de 
pelleterie, mais le froid eftant trop grand pour des 
perfonnes qui font obligez de traifner les canots dans 
1 eau, il uient de faire cache de fon caftor et retourne 
demain au uillage auec nous, fi les Francois ont 
des robbes de ce pays icy ils ne les defrobbent pas, 
tant les fatigues font grandes pour les en tirer. 

[Addressed : -}- 

" A Mon Reuerend Pere Le P. Claude Dablon 
Superieur des Millions dela Compagnie de Jesvs en 
la nouuelle f ranee a quebec"] 

[Endorsed: " Lettre et Journal du feu P. Mar- 

[Endorsed: "Tout ce qui regarde le voyage du 
P Marquette "] 


here, as we do not know in what condition the lower 
part of the river is. 

As I do not yet know whether I shall remain next April 
summer in the village, on account of my diarrhoea, 
we leave here part of our goods, those with which 
we can dispense, and especially a sack of corn. 
While a strong south wind delays us, we hope to go 
to-morrow to the place where the French are, at a 
distance of 1 5 leagues from here. 

Strong winds and the cold prevent us from pro- 6. 

ceeding. The two lakes over which we passed are 
full of bustards, geese, ducks, cranes, and other game 
unknown to us. The rapids are quite dangerous in 
some places. We have just met the surgeon, with a 
savage who was going up with a canoe-load of furs; 
but, as the cold is too great for persons who are 
obliged to drag their canoes in the water, he has 
made a cache of his beaver-skins, and returns to the 
village to-morrow with us. If the French procure 
robes in this country, they do not disrobe the 
savages, so great are the hardships that must be 
endured to obtain them. 

[Addressed : -f- 

" To My Reverend Father, Father Claude Dablon, 
Superior of the Missions of the Society of Jesus 
in new france. Quebec."] 

[Endorsed: " Letter and Journal of the late Father 

[Endorsed: " Everything concerning Father Mar- 
quette s voyage."] 


Recit du second voyage et de la mort du P. 
Jacques Marquette. 

LA mission des Ilinois fut establie en 1 an 1674 
apres le premier voyage que le pere jaques 
marquet fit pour descouurir de nouuelles terres 
et de nouueaux peuples qui sont sur la grande et 
fameuse riuiere apellee missisipi 

II fit 1 annee d apres vn second voyage pour y 
establir la mission, c est ce qu on va raconter. 


LE P. Jaques marquette ayant promis aux Ilinois 
au premier voyage qu il fit ches eux en 1673 
qu il y retourneroit 1 annee suiuante po 9 leur ensei- 
gner nos misteres, eut bien de la peine a tenir sa 
parolle. Les grandes fatigues de son premier voy 
age luy auoient Cause vn flux de sang, et 1 auoient 
tellement abattu qu il estoit hors d esperance d entre- 
prendre vn second voyage. Cependant son mal 
ayant diminue et presque entierement Cesse" sur la 
fin de I est6 de 1 annee suiuante, II obtint permission 
de ses superieurs de retourner aux Ilinois po 9 y 
donner commencement a cette belle mission. 

II partit pour cela dans le mois de nouembre de 
Vanned 1674 de la baye des puants auec deux ho es dont 
vn auoit desja faict le voyage auec luy; pendant vn 

1673 - 77] MARQ UETTE S SECOND VO YA GE \ 85 

Account of the second voyage and the death 
of Father Jacques Marquette. 

THE mission of the Ilinois was founded in the 
year 1674, after the first voyage which father 
jaques marquet made to discover new terri 
tories and new peoples who are on the great and 
famous river missisipi. 

The year following, he made a second voyage in 
order to establish there the mission ; it is that one 
which we are about to relate. 





FATHER Jaques marquette, having promised the 
Ilinois on his first voyage to them, in 1673, 
that he would return to them the following year, to 
teach them the mysteries of our religion, had much 
difficulty in keeping his word. The great hardships 
of his first voyage had Brought upon him a bloody 
flux, and had so weakened him that he was giving up 
the hope of undertaking a second. However, his sick 
ness decreased ; and, as it had almost entirely Abated 
by the close of the summer in the following year 
He obtained the permission of his superiors to return 
to the Ilinois and there begin that fair mission. 

He set out for that purpose, in the month of 
november of the year 1674, from the bay des puants, 


mois de nauigation sur le lac des Ilinois il se porta 
asses bien mais si tost que la neige Commenca a 
tomber il fut repris de son flux de sang qui 1 obligea 
de s arrester dans la riuiere qui Conduit aux Ilinois; 
C est la qu ils firent vne Cabane po 9 passer 1 hyuer 
auec de telles incomodite s que son mal s augmentant 
de plus en plus, il vit bien que Dieu luy acordoit la 
grace qu il luy auoit tant de fois demandee, et mesme 
il le dit tout simplement a ses deux Compagnons, 
qu asseurement il mourroit de cette maladie et dans 
ce voyage. Pour y bien disposer son ame malgre la 
grande jndisposition de son Corps, il commenca vn 
hyuernement si rude par les exercices de s 4 . ignace 
qu il fit auec de grands sentiments de deuotion, et 
beaucoup de Consolations Celestes, et puis il passa 
tout le reste du temps a s entretenir auec tout le 
Ciel, n ayant autre comerce auec la terre dans ces 
deserts qu auec ses deux Compagnons qu il Confes- 
soit et Communioit deux fois la sepmaine, et exhor- 
toit autant que ses forces le pouuoient permettre 
quelque temps apres noel po 9 obtenir la grace de ne 
pas mourir sans auoir pris possession de sa Chere 
mission, il inuita ses Compagnons a faire vne neuf- 
uaine a 1 honneur de l imacule"e conception de la s te . 
vierge ; II fut exauce" centre toutes les aparences 
humaines, et se portant mieux il se mit en estat 
d aller au bourg des Ilinois si tost que la nauigation 
seroit libre, ce qu il fit auec bien de la Joye partant 
po 9 cela le 29 mars; il fut onze Jours en Chemin 011 
il eut occasion de beaucoup souffrir, et pour sa propre 
Indisposition n estant pas entierement retabli, et par 
vn temps tres rude et tres facheux. 

Estant enfin arriue e dans le bourg, il y fut receu 


with two men, one of whom had made the former 
voyage with him. During a month of navigation on 
the lake of the Ilinois, he was tolerably well ; but, 
as soon as the snow Began to fall, he was again 
seized with his bloody flux, which compelled him to 
halt in the river which Leads to the Ilinois. It was 
there that they constructed a Cabin in which to pass 
the winter, amid such inconveniences that, his mala 
dy increasing more and more, he saw clearly that 
God was granting to him the favor which he had 
so many times besought from him ; and he even told 
his two Companions very plainly that he would 
certainly die of that malady, and during that voyage. 
Duly to prepare his soul, despite the severe indispo 
sition of his Body, he began this so severe winter 
sojourn by the retreat of st. ignatius, which he per 
formed with every feeling of devotion, and many 
Celestial Consolations ; and then he passed the whole 
of the remaining time in holding communion with 
all Heaven, having, in these deserts, no intercourse 
with the earth except with his two Companions. He 
Confessed them and administered Communion to 
them twice in the week, and exhorted them as much 
as his strength permitted him. A short time after 
Christmas, that he might obtain the favor of not 
dying without having taken possession of his Dear 
mission, he invited his Companions to make a novena 
in honor of the immaculate conception of the blessed 
virgin. His prayer was answered, against all human 
probability ; and, his health improving, he prepared 
himself to go to the village of the Ilinois as soon as 
navigation should open, which he did with much 
Joy, setting out for that place on the 2Qth of march. 
He spent eleven Days on the Way, during which time 


comme vn ange du Ciel, et apres auoir assemble par 
diuerses fois les Chef de la nation auec tous les 
anciens po 9 letter dans leurs esprits les premieres 
semences de 1 euangile ; apres auoir porte" les Instruc 
tions dans les Cabanes qui se trouuoient tousjours 
plaines d une grande foule de peuples, il prit resolu 
tion de parler a tous publiquement dans vne assem 
ble g nale qu il conuoqua en plaine Campagne, les 
Cabanes estant trop estroites po 9 tout le monde. ce 
fut vne belle prairie proche du bourg qu on Choisit 
pour ce grand Conseil, et qu on orna a la facon du 
pai s la Couurant de nattes et de peaux d ours, et le 
p. ayant faict estendre sur des Cordes diuerses pieces 
de taftas de la chine, il y atacha quatre grandes 
Images de la s te . Vierge qui estoient veiies de tous 
Coste"s. L auditoire estoit Compose" de 500 tant de 
chefs que de vieillards assis en rond a 1 entour du 
pere et de toute la Jeunesse qui se tenoit debout au 
nombre de plus de 1500 ho es . sans compter les femmes 
et les enfans qui sont en grand nombre, le bourg 
estant Compose de 5 a 600 feux. Le pere parla a 
tout le peuple, et leur porta 10 paroles par dix 
presents qu il leur fit, leur expliqua les principaux 
mysteres de nostre Religion, et la fin po 9 laquelle il 
estoit veneu en leur pai s; sur tout il leur precha J. 
C. la veille mesme (de ce grand iour) qu il estoit 
mort en Croix, po 9 eux aussi bien que po 9 tout le 
reste des ho es . et dit ensuite la s te . messe. trois Jours 
apres qui estoit le dimanche de pasques les choses 
estant disposees de la mesme maniere que le Jeudy, 
il celebra les s ts . misteres po 9 la 2 de . fois Et par ces 
deux sacrifices qu on y eut iamais offerts a dieu, il 
prit possession de cette terre au nom de J. C. et donna 


lie had occasion to suffer much, both from his own 
Illness, from which he had not entirely recovered, 
and from the very severe and unfavorable weather. 
On at last arriving at the village, he was received 
as an angel from Heaven. After he had assembled 
at various times the Chiefs of the nation, with all the 
old men, that he might sow in their minds the first 
seeds of the gospel, and after having given Instruc 
tion in the Cabins, which were always filled with a 
groat crowd of people, he resolved to address all in 
public, in a general assembly which he called 
together in the open Air, the Cabins being too small 
to contain all the people. It was a beautiful prairie, 
close to a village, which was Selected for the great 
Council ; this was adorned, after the fashion of the 
country, by Covering it with mats and bearskins. 
Then the father, having directed them to stretch out 
upon Lines several pieces of Chinese taffeta, attached 
to these four large Pictures of the blessed Virgin, 
which were visible on all Sides. The audience was 
Composed of 500 chiefs and elders, seated in a circle 
around the father, and of all the Young men, who 
remained standing. They numbered more than i , 500 
men, without counting the women and children, who 
are always numerous, the village being Composed 
of 5 or 600 fires. The father addressed the whole 
body of people, and conveyed to them 10 messages, 
by means of ten presents which he gave them. He 
explained to them the principal mysteries of our 
Religion, and the purpose that had brought him to 
their country. Above all, he preached to them Jesus 
Christ, on the very eve (of that great day) on which 
he had died upon the Cross for them, as well as for 
all the rest of mankind ; then he said holy mass. On 


a cette mission le nom de la Conception Immacul6e 
de la s te . vierge. 

II fut escoute auec vne Joye vniuersselle de tons 
ces peuples qui le prierent auec de Ires grandes 
Instances qu il eust a reuenir au plustost die s eux 
puis qne sa maladie 1 obligeoit a s en retottrner. Le 
p. de son Coste leur tesmoigna 1 affection qu il leur 
portoit la satisfaction qu il auoit d eux, etleur donna 
parolle que luy ou vn autre de nos peres reuiendroit 
po 9 Continuer cette mission si heureusement Com- 
mence e ce qu il leur promit encore a diuerses reprises 
en se separant d auec eux. po 9 se mettre en 
Chemin, ce qu il fit auec tant de marques d amitie" de 
la part de Ces bonnes gens qu ils vouleurent 1 acorn - 
pagner par honneur pendant plus de 30 lieues de 
Chemin, se Chargans a 1 enuy 1 un de 1 autre de son 
petit bagage. 





APRES que les Ilinois eurent prit Conge" du pere 
remplis d une grande ide"e de 1 euangile, il Con- 
tinua son voyage et se rendit peu apres sur le lac des 
Ilinois sur lequel il auoit pres de cent lieues a faire 
par vne routte inconneiie a ou il n auoit Jamais este" 
parce qu il estoit oblige de prendre du Costd du sud 
de ce lac estant venue par celuy du nord. Mais 
ses forces diminuerent de telle facon que ses deux 
ho es . desespererent de le porter en vie Jusqu au 
terme de leur voyage Car de fait il deuint si foible 
etsiespuise" qu il ne pouuoit plus s ayder n y mesme 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S SECOND VO YA GE 191 

the third Day after, which was easter Sunday, things 
being prepared in the same manner as on Thursday, 
he celebrated the holy mysteries for the 2nd time; 
And by these two, the only sacrifices ever offered there 
to God, he took possession of that land in the name 
of Jesus Christ, and gave to that mission the name 
of the Immaculate Conception of the blessed virgin. 
He was listened to by all those peoples with uni 
versal Joy; and they prayed him with most earnest 
Entreaty to come back to them as soon as possible, 
since his sickness obliged him to return. The father, 
on his Side, expressed to them the affection which 
he felt for them, and the satisfaction that they had 
given him ; and pledged them his word that he, or 
some other of our fathers would return to Carry on 
that mission so happily Inaugurated. This promise 
he repeated several times, while parting with them 
to go upon his Way ; and he set out with so many 
tokens of regard on the part of Those good peoples 
that, as a mark of honor they chose to escort him for 
more than 30 leagues on the Road, vying with each 
other in taking Charge of his slender baggage. 





AFTER the Ilinois, filled with great esteem for the 
gospel, had taken Leave of the father, he Con 
tinued his journey, and shortly after reached the lake 
of the Ilinois, upon whose waters he had to journey 
nearly a hundred leagues, by an unknown route, 
whereon he had Never before traveled ; for he was 
obliged to coast along the southern Shore of the lake, 


se remuer, et il falloit le manier et le porter coe vn 

Cependant il Conseruoit en cet estat vne egalite 
d esprit vne resignation, vne Joye et vne douceur 
admirable, consolant ces chers Compagnons, et les 
encourageant a souffrir patiemment toutes les fa 
tigues de ce voyage dans 1 asseurance que Dieu ne les 
abandonneroit pas apres sa mort ; ce fut pendant cette 
nauigation qu il commanga a s y preparer plus par- 
ticulierement. II s entretenoit par diuers Colloques 
tantost auec nostre Seigneur tantost auec sa sacr6e 
mere, ou auec son ange gardien ou auec tout le para- 
dis, on 1 entendoit souuent repeter ^[C]es parolles, 
credo quod redemptor meus viuit, ou bien maria 
mater gratiae, mater dei memento mei, outre sa 
lecture spirituelle qu on luy faisoit tous les Jours, il 
pria sur la fin qu on luy leust sa meditation de la 
preparation a la mort qu il portoit sur luy, il recitoit 
tous les Jours son breuiare, et quoy qu il fut si bas 
que sa veiie et ses forces estoit beaucoup diminue es 
II ne cessa point jusqu au dernier jour de sa vie apres 
que ses gens luy en eurent faict scrupule. 

huit Jours auant sa mort il eut la pensee de faire 
de 1 eau benite po 9 luy seruir pendant le reste de sa 
maladie, a son agonie, et a sa sepulture, et il Instrui- 
sit ses Compagnons comment il en fa/loit vser. 

La veille de son trepas qui fut vn vendredy il leur 
dit tout Joyeux que ce seroit le lendemain, il les 
entretint pendant tout ce Jour de ce qu il y auoit a 
faire po 9 son enterrement, de la maniere dont il 
faloit 1 enseuellir, de la place qu il faloit choisir po 9 
1 enterrer, comment il luy faudroit acomoder les 
pieds les mains, et le visage, coe ils esleueroient vne 


having- come by the northern. But his strength was 
so rapidly diminishing that his two men despaired of 
being able to bring him alive To the end of their 
journey. Indeed, he became so feeble and exhausted 
that he was unable to assist or even to move himself, 
and had to be handled and carried about like a child. 

Meanwhile, he Preserved in that condition an 
admirable equanimity, resignation, Joy, and gentle 
ness, consoling his dear Companions and encouraging 
them to suffer patiently all the hardships of that 
voyage, in the assurance that God would not abandon 
them after his death. It was during this voyage 
that he began to make more special preparation for 
death. He held Communion, sometimes with our 
Lord, sometimes with his holy mother, or with his 
guardian angel, or with all paradise. He was often 
overheard repeating These words, Credo quod redemp- 
tor meus vivit; or, maria, mater gratia, mater dei, 
memento mei. In addition to the spiritual exercise, 
which was read to him every Day, he requested 
toward the close that they would read to him his 
meditation preparatory for death, which he carried 
about with him. He recited every Day his breviary ; 
and although he was so low that his sight and 
strength were greatly enfeebled, He continued to do 
so to the last day of his life, despite the remonstrance 
of his companions. 

Eight Days before his death, he was thoughtful 
enough to prepare the holy water for use during the 
rest of his illness, in his agony, and at his burial ; and 
he Instructed his Companions how it should be used. 

The evening before his death, which was a friday, 
he told them, very Joyously, that it would take place 
on the morrow. He conversed with them during 


Croix sur son tombeau Jusques la mesme qu il les 
aduertit 3 heures auant que d expirer que si tost 
qu il seroit mort qu ils prissent la Clochete de sa 
Chapelle po 9 la sonner pendant qu ils le porteroient 
en terre parlant de toutes ces choses auec tant de 
repos et auec vne si grande presence d esprit qu on 
cut creu qu il s agissoit de la mort et des funerailles 
de quelq 9 autre et non pas des siennes. 

Ainsi les entretenoit il en chemin faisant sur le 
lac jusqu a ce qu ayant aperceu vne riuiere sur le 
bord de laquelle il y auoit vne eminence qu il trou- 
uoit bien propre po 9 y estre enterr6 ; II leur dit que 
C estoit la le lieu de son dernier repos, ils vouleurent 
pourtant passer outre parce que le temps le 
permetoit, et le jour n estoit pas aduance" mais dieu 
suscita vn vent Contraire qui les obligea de retour- 
ner et entrer dans la riuiere que le p leur auoit 
designed. Ils le desbarquent done ils luy alument 
vn peu de feu, ils luy dressent vne meschante Cabane 
d escorce, ils 1 y couchent le moins mal qu ils 
peuuent, mais ils estoient si saisis de tristesse qu ils 
ont dit du depuis qu ils ne scauoient presque ce 
qu ils faisoient. 

Le p. estant ainsi Couche* a peu pres coe s*. f*. 
xauier, ce qu il auoit tousjours souhaite" auec tant de 
passion, et se voyant seul au milieu de Ces forets, 
car ses compagnons estoient ocupes a desbarquer, il 
eut loisir de repeter tous les actes auxquels il s estoit 
entreteneu pendant ces derniers Jours. 

Ses chers compagnons s estans ensuite aproche*s 
de luy tous abatus il les Consola et leur fit esperer 
que Dieu auroit soin d eux apres sa mort, dans ces 
pai s nouueaux, et inconneus, II leur donna les der- 

1673 - 77] MA RQUETTE S SECOND VO YA GE 195 

the whole Day as to what would need to be done for 
his burial : about the manner in which they should 
inter him ; of the spot that should be chosen for his 
grave; how his feet, his hands, and his face should 
be arranged ; how they should erect a Cross over his 
grave. He even went so Far as to counsel them, 3 
hours before he expired, that as soon as he was dead 
they should take the little Hand-bell of his Chapel, 
and sound it while he was being put under ground. 
He spoke of all these things with so great tranquil 
lity and presence of mind that one might have supposed 
that he was concerned with the death and funeral of 
some other person, and not with his own. 

Thus did he converse with them as they made 
their way upon the lake, until, having perceived a 
river, on the shore of which stood an eminence that 
he deemed well suited to be the place of his inter 
ment, he told them that That was the place of his 
last repose. 45 They wished, however, to proceed 
farther, as the weather was favorable, and the day 
was not far advanced; but God raised a Contrary 
wind, which compelled them to return, and enter the 
river which the father had pointed out. They accord 
ingly brought him to the land, lighted a little fire for 
him, and prepared for him a wretched Cabin of bark. 
They laid him down therein, in the least uncomfort 
able way that they could ; but they were so stricken 
with sorrow that, as they have since said, they hardly 
knew what they were doing. 

The father, being thus Stretched on the ground in 
much the same way as was st. francis xavier, as 
he had always so passionately desired, and finding 
himself alone in the midst of These forests, for his 
companions were occupied with the disembarkation, 


nieres Instructions, les remercia de toutes les charites 
qu ils auoient exerces en son endroit pendant tout le 
voyage, leur demanda pardon des peines qu il leur 
auoit donne"es, les chargea de demander pardon aussi 
de sa part a tous nos peres et freres qui sont dans le 
pai s des outaoiiacs, et voulut bien les disposer a rece- 
uoir le sacrement de penitence, qu il leur aministra 
po 9 la derniere fois; il leur donna aussi vn papier 
dans lequel il auoit escrit toutes ses fautes depuis sa 
derniere Confession po 9 le mettre entre les mains 
du p. sup 1 ", a fin de 1 obliger a prier Dieu po 9 luy plus 
particulierement En fin il leur promit qu il ne les 
oublieroit point dans le paradis, et coe il estoit fort 
Compassif sachant qu ils estoient bien las par les 
fatigues des Jours precedents, il leur ordonna d aller 
prendre vn peu de repos, les asseurant que son heure 
n estoit pas encore si proche, qu il les esueilleroit 
quand il en seroit temps; coe de fait 2 ou 3 heures 
apres il les apella estant tout prest d entrer dans 
1 agonie. 

quand ils furent aproches il les embrassa encore 
vne fois pendant qu ils fondoient en larmes a ses 
pieds ; puis il leur demanda de 1 eau benite et son 
reliquaire, et ayant luy mesme oste son Crucifix qu il 
portoit tousjours pendu a son col, il le mit entre les 
mains d un de ses Compagnons le priant de le tenir 
tousjours vis a vis de luy eleue" deuant ses yeux et 
sentant qu il ne luy restoit que fort peu de temps a 
viure, il fit vn dernier effort Joigner les mains, et 
tenant tousjours les yeux. doucement attaches a son 
Crucifix, il fit a haute voix sa profession de foy, et 
remercia la diuine majeste de la grande grace qu il 
luy faisoit de mourir dans la Comp e . d y mourir 


he had leisure to repeat all the acts in which he had 
continued during these last Days. 

His dear companions having afterward rejoined 
him, all disconsolate, he Comforted them, and in 
spired them with the confidence that God would take 
care of them after his death, in these new and 
unknown countries. He gave them the last Instruc 
tions, thanked them for all the charities which they 
had exercised in his behalf during the whole jour 
ney, and entreated pardon for the trouble that he 
had given them. He charged them to ask pardon 
for him also, from all our fathers and brethren who 
live in the country of the outaouacs. Then he under 
took to prepare them for the sacrament of penance, 
which he administered to them for the last time. He 
gave them also a paper on which he had written all 
his faults since his own last Confession, that they 
might place it in the hands of the father superior, 
that the latter might be enabled to pray to God for 
him in a more special manner. Finally, he promised 
not to forget them in paradise. And, as he was very 
Considerate, knowing that they were much fatigued 
with the hardships of the preceding Days, he bade 
them go and take a little repose. He assured them 
that his hour was not yet so very near, and that he 
would awaken them when the time should come 
as, in fact, 2 or 3 hours afterward he did summon 
them, being ready to enter into the agony. 

They drew near to him, and he embraced them 
once again, while they burst into tears at his feet. 
Then he asked for holy water and his reliquary ; and 
having himself removed his Crucifix, which he 
carried always suspended round his neck, he placed 
it in the hands of one of his Companions, begging 


missionnaire de J. C. et sur tout d y mourir coe il 
1 auoit tousjours demand6 dans vne Chetiue cabane, 
au milieu des forets, et dans 1 abandon de tout 
secours humain. 

Apres cela il se teut, s entretenant en luy mesme 
auec Dieu il laissoit neantmoins eschaper de temps 
en temps ces mots sustinuit anima mea in verbo 
ejus, ou bien celles cy mater dei memento mei qui 
sont les dernieres parolles qu il prononca auant que 
d entrer dans 1 agonie qui fut tousjours tres douce 
et fort tranquille. 

II auoit prie" ses Compagnons de le faire souuenir 
quand ils le verroient pres d expirer de prononcer 
souuent les noms de Jesus et de marie s il ne le fai- 
soit pas de luy mesme. Ils n y manquerent pas, et 
lors qu ils le Crurent pres de passer 1 un d eux Cria 
tout haut Jesvs Maria ce que le mourant repeta 
distinctement et plusieurs fois et coe si a Ces noms 
sacre"s quelq 9 Chose se fut presented a luy, il leua 
tout d un Coup les yeux au dessus de son Cruci 
fix les tenant Coll6s sur cest objet qu il sembloit 
regarder auec plaisir, et ainssi le visage riant 
et enname" il expira sans aucune Conueulsion, et 
auec vne douceur qu on peut apeller vn agreable 

ses deux pauures Compagnons apres auoir versse 
bien des larmes sur son Corps, et apres 1 auoir 
acomode" de la maniere qu il leur auoit prescrite le 
porterent denotement en terre sonnant la Clochete 
coe il leur auoit dit, et dresserent vne grande Croix 
proche de son tombeau po 9 seruir de marque aux 

Quand il fut question de s embarquer po 9 partir 


him to hold it before his eyes. Then, feeling that 
he had but a short time to live, he made a last effort, 
Clasped his hands, and, with a steady and fond look 
upon his Crucifix, he uttered aloud his profession of 
faith, and gave thanks to the divine majesty for the 
great favor which he had accorded him of dying in 
the Society, of dying in it as a missionary of Jesus 
Christ, and, above all, of dying in it, as he had 
always prayed, in a Wretched cabin in the midst of 
the forests and bereft of all human succor. 

After that, he was silent, communing within 
himself with God. Nevertheless, he let escape from 
time to time these words, Sustinuit anima mea in verbo 
ejus; or these, Mater Dei t memento mei-- which were 
the last words that he uttered before entering his 
agony, which was, however, very mild and peaceful. 

He had prayed his Companions to put him in mind, 
when they should see him about to expire, to repeat 
frequently the names of Jesus and mary, if he could 
not himself do so. They did as they were bidden ; 
and, when they Believed him to be near his end, one 
of them Called aloud, Jesus, Mary ! The dying 
man repeated the words distinctly, several times; 
and as if, at These sacred names, Something pre 
sented itself to him, he Suddenly raised his eyes 
above his Crucifix, holding them Riveted on that 
object, which he appeared to regard with pleasure. 
And so, with a countenance beaming and all aglow, 
he expired without any Struggle, and so gently that 
it might have been regarded as a pleasant sleep. 

His two poor Companions, shedding many tears 
over him, composed his Body in the manner which 
he had prescribed to them. Then they carried him 
devoutly to burial, ringing the while the little Bell 


1 un des deux qui depuis quelques Jours auoit le 
Coeur tellement saisi de tristesse et si fort acable" 
d une douleur d estomac qu il ne pouuoit plus ny 
manger n y respirer que bien dificilement s aduisa 
pendant que 1 autre preparoit toutes choses po 9 1 em- 
barquement; s aduisa d aller sur le tombeau de son 
bon pere, po 9 le prier de 1 ayder au pres de la 
glorieuse vierge coe il luy auoit promis ne doubtant 
point qu il ne fut dans le Ciel, il se mit done a 
genoux, faict vne Court priere et ayant pris auec 
respect de la terre du sepulchre, il 1 a mit sur sa 
poitrine ; et aussi tost son mal Cessa et sa tristesse 
fut changed en vne Joye qu il a du depuis conserue"e 
pendant son voyage. 







DIEU n a pas voulu permettre qu un depost si pre- 
tieux, demeurast au milieu des bois sans hon- 
neur et dans 1 oubly. Les sauuages nommes KisKa- 
Kons qui font proffession publiq 9 du Christianisme 
depuis pres de dix ans, et qui ont est6 instruit par le 
p. Marquette lors qu il demeuroit a la pointe du s l . 
Esprit a I extremite du lac sup r . ont faict leur chasse 
1 hyuer pass6 aux enuirons du lac des Ilinois et coe 
ils s en retournoient au printemps ils furent bien aise 
de passer proche le tombeau de leur bon pere qu ils 
aymoient tendrement et mesme Dieu leur donna la 
pense"e d enleuer ses ossamens p. les transporter en 



as he had bidden them ; and planted a large Cross 
near to his grave, as a sign to passers-by. 

When it became a question of embarking, to pro 
ceed on their journey, one of the two, who for some 
Days had been so Heartsick with sorrow, and so 
greatly prostrated with an internal malady, that he 
could no longer eat or breathe except with difficulty, 
bethought himself, while the other was making all 
preparations for embarking, to visit the grave of his 
good father, and ask his intercession with the glori 
ous virgin, as he had promised, not doubting in the 
least that he was in Heaven. He fell, then, upon 
his knees, made a Short prayer, and having rever 
ently taken some earth from the tomb, he pressed it 
to his breast. Immediately his sickness Abated, and 
his sorrow was changed into a Joy which did not 
forsake him during the remainder of his journey. 







GOD did not permit that a deposit so precious 
should remain in the midst of the forest, un- 
honored and forgotten. The savages named Kiska- 
kons, who have been making public profession of 
Christianity for nearly ten years, and who were 
instructed by father Marquette when he lived at the 
point of st. Esprit, at the extremity of lake superior, 
carried on their last winter s hunting in the vicinity 
of the lake of the Ilinois. As they were returning 
in the spring, they were greatly pleased to pass near 


nostre Eglise de la mission de s 1 . Ignace a missilima- 
Kinac ou ils font leur demeure. 

Us se rendirent done sur le lieu, et deliberent 
ensemble d agir a 1 esgard du pere suiuant ce qu ils 
ont Coustume de faire enuers Ceux po 9 qui ils ont 
bien du respect ; Ils ouurent done la fosse ils deue- 
lopent le Corps, et quoy q 9 la Chair et les Intestins 
fusent tous Consumes ils le trouuent entier sans que 
la peau fut en aucune facon endomagee, ce qui n em- 
pecha pas qu ils n en fissent la dissection a leur 
ordinaire ils lauerent les os et les exposerent au soleil 
po 9 les seicher, apres quoy les ayant bien range s 
dans vne quaisse d escorce de bouleau, ils se mirent 
en chemin po 9 no 9 les aporter en nostre mission de 
s*. Ignace. 

Ils estoient pres de 30 Canots qui faisoient sa con- 
uoy auec vn tres bel ordre, il s y trouua mesme vn 
tres bon nombre d jroquois qui s estoient Joints a nos 
sauuages algonquins po 9 faire plus d honneur a cette 
ceremonie. quand ils aprocherent de nostre maison, 
le p nouuel qui y est sup r . fut au deuant d eux auec 
le p. piercon acompagne" de ce qu il y auoit de francois 
et de sauuages, et ayant faict arrester le Conuoy, il fit 
les interogations ordinaires po 9 verifier que C estoit 
veritablement le corps du p. qu ils aportoient, et 
auant que de le descendre a terre on Entonna le de 
profundis a la veiie de ces 30 Canots qui estoient 
tousjours a 1 eau, et de tout le peuple qui estoit 
a terre. apres cela on porta le Corps a 1 eglise 
gardant tout ce que le rituel marque en semblables 
ceremonies, il demeura expos6 tout ce Jour la sous 
la representation qui fut la 2 de . feste de la pente- 
coste 8 de Juin et le 1 endemain apres qu on luy eut 


the grave of their good father, whom they tenderly 
loved ; and God also put it into their hearts to remove 
his bones and bring them to our Church at the 
mission of st. Ignace at missilimakinac, where those 
savages make their abode. 

They repaired, then, to the spot, and resolved 
among themselves to act in regard to the father as they 
are Wont to do toward Those for whom they profess 
great respect. Accordingly, they opened the grave, 
and uncovered the Body; and, although the Flesh 
and Internal organs were all Dried up, they found 
it entire, so that not even the skin was in any way 
injured. This did not prevent them from proceed 
ing to dissect it, as is their custom. They cleansed the 
bones and exposed them to the sun to dry; then, 
carefully laying them in a box of birch-bark, they 
set out to bring them to our mission of st. Ignace. 

There were nearly 30 Canoes which formed, in 
excellent order, that funeral procession. There were 
also a goodly number of iroquois, who United with 
our algonquin savages to lend more honor to the 
ceremonial. When they drew near our house, 
father nouvel, who is its superior, with father pier- 
con, went out to meet them, accompanied by the 
frenchmen and savages who were there ; and having 
halted the Procession, he put the usual questions to 
them, to make sure that It was really the father s 
body which they were bringing. Before conveying it 
to land, they Intoned the -de profundis in the presence 
of the 30 Canoes, which were still on the water, and 
of the people who were on the shore. After that, the 
Body was carried to the church, care being taken to 
observe all that the ritual appoints in such ceremo 
nies. It remained exposed under the pall, all that 


rendu tons les deuoirs funebres il fut mis dans 
vn petit Caueau au milieu de 1 eglise, ou il repose 
coe l ange tutelaire de nos missions des outaouas. 
Les sauuages viennent prier souuent sur son tombeau 
et po 9 n en pas dire d auantage vne jeune fille age"e 
de 19 a 20 ans que le feu p. auoit Instruite, et qui 
fut baptised Tan passe estant tombee malade et 
s estant adressee au p. nouuel po 9 estre saignde, et 
prendre quelques remedes le p. luy ordonna po 9 
toute medecine de venir pendant 3 Jours dire vn 
pater et trois aues sur le tombeau du p. marquette, 
ce qu elle fit et auant le 3 e Jour elle fut guerie sans 
saigne"e, et sans aucuns autres remedes. 

Le p. Jaques marquette de la pro ce . de champagne, 
est mort a 1 age de 38 ans dont il en a passe 21 en la 
Compagnie, scauoir 12 en france et 9 en Canada. II 
fut enuoye dans les missions des algonquins supe- 
rieurs qu on nome outaouacs, et y a trauaille" auec vn 
Zel/e qu on doit atendre d un ho e . qui s est propose" 
s l . f. xauier po 9 le mode/le de sa vie et de sa mort. 
II a mute" ce grand S. non seulement par la diuercite" 
des langues barbares qu il a aprises mais aussi par 
1 estendue de son Zel/e qui luy a faict porter la foy 
Jusques a I extremit6 de ce nouueau monde, et a pres 
de 800 lieiies d icy dans les forets ou jamais le nom 
de J. C. n auoit este" anonce. 

II a tous jours demand6 a Dieu de finir sa vie dans 
ces laborieuses missions et de mourir au milieu des 
bois coe son cher s l . xauier dans vn abandon g at 
de toutes choses. II Interposoit tous les Jours po 9 
cela les merites de J. C. et 1 interssession de la 
vierge Immacule e; po 9 laquelle il auoit vne rare 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S SECOND VO YA GE 205 

Day, which was whitsun-monday, the 8th of June ; 
and on the morrow, after having rendered to it all 
the funeral rites, it was lowered into a small Vault in 
the middle of the church, where it rests as the guar 
dian angel of our outaouas missions. The savages 
often come to pray over his tomb. Not to mention 
more than this instance, a young girl, aged 19 or 20 
years, whom the late father had Instructed, and who 
had been baptized in the past year, fell sick, and 
applied to father nouvel to be bled and to take cer 
tain remedies. The father prescribed to her, as sole 
medicine, to come for 3 Days and say a pater and 
three avis at the tomb of father marquette. She 
did so, and before the 3rd Day was cured, without 
bleeding or any other remedies. 

Father Jaques marquette, of the province of cham 
pagne, died at the age of 38 years, of which 21 were 
passed in the Society --namely, 12 in f ranee and 9 
in Canada. He was sent to the missions of the upper 
algonquins, who are called outaouacs; and labored 
therein with the Zeal that might be expected from a 
man who had proposed to himself st. francis xavier 
as the model of his life and death. He resembled 
that great Saint, not only in the variety of barbarian 
languages which he mastered, but also by the range 
of his Zeal, which made him carry the faith To the 
ends of this new world, and nearly 800 leagues from 
here into the forests, where the name of Jesus Christ 
had never been proclaimed. 

He always entreated God that he might end his 
life in these laborious missions, and that, like his 
dear st. xavier, he might die in the midst of the 
woods, bereft of everything. Every Day, he Inter 
posed for that end both the merits of Jesus Christ 


Aussi a t il obtenu par de si puissant mediateurs ce 
qu il a demand^ auec tant d instance puis qu il a eu 
le bonheur de mourir coe 1 apostre des Indes dans 
vne mechante cabane sur le riuage du lac Ilinois, 
abandonne" de tout le monde. 

Nous aurions bien de choses a dire des rares 
vertus de ce genereux missionnaire de son Zel/e qui 
luy a faict porter la foy si loing et anoncer 1 euangille 
a tant de peuples qui nous estoient inconnus ; de sa 
douceur qui le rendit aymable a tout le monde, et 
qui le faisoit tout a tous, francois auec les francois, 
huron auec les hurons algonquin auec les algonquins ; 
de sa Candeur d enfant po 9 se descouurir a ses sup rs et 
mesme a toute sorte de perssonnes auec vne jngenuite" 
qui gagnoit tous les Cceurs ; de sa Chastet6 angelique ; 
de son vnion auec Dieu continuelle. 

Mais celle qui a Coe predomine", estoit vne deuo- 
tion tout a faict rare, et singuliere a la s te vierge en 
particulierement enuers le mistere de son immacule e 
conception. II y auoit plaisir de 1 entendre parler 
ou prescher sur cette matiere toutes ses conuerssa- 
tions et ses lettres auoient quelq 9 chose de la s te . 
vierge Immaculee, c est ainssi qu il la nommoit tous- 
jours, II a Jeune depuis 1 age de 9 ans tous les same- 
dis, et des sa plus tendre Jeunesse, il a Commence e a 
dire le petit office de la Conception, Inspirant cette 
deuotion a tout le monde quelques mois auant sa 
mort il disoit tous les Jours auec ses deux ho es . vne 
petite couronne de 1 immacule e conception qu il auoit 
inuente de cette sorte ; Apres le Credo on dit vne 
fois le pater et I au6, et puis 4 fois ces parolles, au6 
filia dei patris aue" mater filij dei, au sponsa spiritus 
sancti aue templum totius trinitatis, per sanctam 

1673 - 77] MA R Q UETTE S SECOND VO YA GE 207 

and the intercession of the virgin Immaculate, for 
whom he entertained a singular tenderness. 

Accordingly, he obtained through such powerful 
mediators that which he solicited with so much ear 
nestness ; since he had, like the apostle of the Indies, 
the happiness to die in a wretched cabin on the shore 
of lake Ilinois, forsaken by all the world. 

We might say much of the rare virtues of this 
noble missionary: of his Zeal, which prompted him 
to carry the faith so far, and proclaim the gospel to 
so many peoples who were unknown to us ; of his 
gentleness, which rendered him beloved by all, and 
made him all things to all men a frenchman with 
the french, a huron with the hurons, an algonquin 
with the algonquins; of the childlike Candor with 
which he disclosed his heart to his superiors, and 
even to all kinds of persons, with an ingenuousness 
which won all Hearts; of his angelic Chastity; and 
of his uninterrupted union with God. 

But that which Apparently predominated was a 
devotion, altogether rare and singular, to the blessed 
virgin, and particularly toward the mystery of her 
immaculate conception. It was a pleasure to hear 
him speak or preach on that subject. All his con 
versations and letters contained something about the 
blessed virgin Immaculate for so he always called 
her. From the age of 9 years, he Fasted every 
Saturday; and from his tenderest Youth Began to 
say the little office of the Conception, Inspiring 
every one with the same devotion. Some months 
before his death, he said every Day with his two 
men a little corona of the immaculate conception 
which he had devised as follows: After the Credo, 
there is said once the pater and ave, and then 4 times 


virginitatem et immaculatam conceptionem tuam 
purissima virgo emunda Cor et Carnem meam, in 
nomine patris ; et filij [et] spiritus sancti ; et enfin le 
gloria patry et le tout se repetoit trois fois. 

II n a Jamais manque de Dire la messe de la Con 
ception ou du moins, 1 oraison quand il 1 a pu, il ne 
pensoit presque a autre chose Jour et nuit, et po 9 nous 
laisser vne marque eternelle de ses sentiments il a 
vouleu donner le nom de la Conception a la mission 
des Ilinois. 

Vne si tendre deuotion enuers la mere de Dieu 
meritoit quelq 9 grace singuliere aussi luy a t elle 
acorde la faueur qu il luy auoit tousjours demande e 
de mourir vn samedy ; et ses compagnons ne doubtent 
point qu elle ne se soit faite voir a luy a 1 heure de 
sa mort, lors qu apres auoir prononce les noms de 
Jesus et marie il haussa tout d un Coup les yeux au 
dessus de son Crucifix les tenant attache s sur vn 
objet qu il regardoit auec tant de plaisir, et auec 
vne Joye qui paroissoit sur son visage et ils eurent 
alors cette impression qu il auoit rendu son ame entre 
les mains de sa bonne mere. 

Vne des dernieres lettres qu il a escrites au p. 
sup r . des missions auant son grand voyage montre 
ass6s qu ils estoient ses sentiments voicy coe il la 
Commence. La S te . vierge immacule e m a obtenu la 
grace d arriuer icy en bonne sante, et dans la resolu 
tion de corespondre aux desseins que Dieu a sur moy 
m ayant destin6 po 9 le vo}^age du sud. Je n ay 
point d autre pense"e sinon de faire ce que Dieu veut. 
ie n aprehende rien ny les nadoissis, ny 1 abord des 
nations ne m estonne pas; de deux Choses Tune ou 
Dieu me punira de mes crimes et de mes lachetes, 


these words: Ave filia Dei patris, ave mater filii Dei, 
ave sponsa spiritus sancti, ave templum totius trinitatis: 
per sanctam virginitatem et immaculatam conceptionem 
tuam, purissima virgo, emunda Cor et Carnem meant: tn 
nomine patris, et filii, et spiritus sancti, concluding 
with the gloria patri, the whole repeated three times. 

He Never failed to Say the mass of the Concep 
tion, or, at least, when he could do so, the prayer 
of the Conception. He hardly meditated upon any 
thing else Day and night. That he might leave us 
an ever-enduring testimony of his sentiments, it was 
his desire to bestow on the mission of the Ilinois the 
name of la Conception. 

So tender a devotion toward the mother of God 
merited some singular grace ; and she accorded him 
the favor that he had always requested to die on a 
Saturday. His companions never doubted that she 
appeared to him at the hour of his death, when, 
after pronouncing the names of Jesus and mary, he 
Suddenly raised his eyes above his Crucifix, holding 
them fixed on an object which he regarded with 
extreme pleasure, and a Joy that showed itself upon 
his features ; and they had, at that time, the impres 
sion that he had rendered up his soul into the hands 
of his good mother. 

One of the last letters that he wrote to the father 
superior of the missions before his great voyage, is 
sufficient evidence that such were his sentiments. 
He Begins it thus: " The Blessed virgin immaculate 
has obtained for me the favor of reaching this place 
in good health, and with the resolve to correspond 
to the intentions which God has respecting me, since 
he has assigned me to the voyage toward the south. 
I have no other thought than that of doing what God 


ou bien il me faira part de sa Croix que ie n ay point 
encore porte"e depuis que ie suis en ce pays icy Mais 
putestre qu elle m est obtenue par la s te . vierge im- 
macule~e ou peut estre vne mort po 9 cesser d offencer 
Dieu, cest a quoy ie tache de me tenir prest m aban- 
donnant tout a faict entre ses mains. Je prie V. R. 
de ne me point oublier et de m obtenir de Dieu 
que ie ne demeure point ingrat des graces dont il 
m acable. 

on a trouu6 parmy les papiers vn Cahier intitu!6 
la Conduite de Dieu sur vn missionnaire ou il faict 
voir 1 excelence de cette vocation, les aduantages 
qu on y trouue po 9 s y sanctifier et Ie soin que Dieu 
prend des ouuriers Euangeliques, on voit dans ce 
petite abreg<S 1 esprit de Dieu dont il estoit possede" 


wills. I dread nothing neither the nadoissis, nor 
the reception awaiting me among the nations, dis 
may me. One of two Things will happen: either 
God will punish me for my crimes and cowardice, or 
else he will give me a share in his Cross, which I 
have not yet carried since my arrival in this country. 
But this Cross has been perhaps obtained for me by 
the blessed virgin immaculate, or it may be death 
itself, that I may cease to offend God. It is that for 
which I try to hold myself in readiness, surrendering 
myself altogether into his hands. I entreat Your 
Reverence not to forget me, and to obtain for me of 
God that I may not remain ungrateful for the favors 
which he heaps upon me." 

There was found among his papers a Manuscript 
entitled " The Directing care of God over a mission 
ary, in which he shows the excellence of that voca 
tion, the advantages which it affords for self-sanctifi- 
cation, and the care that God takes of Gospel laborers. 
One sees in this little abstract the spirit of God 
which possessed him. 


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SOURCE : In publishing this document, we follow mainly 
the text given in Douniol s Relations ine dites, t. ii., pp. 
17-95. We omit therefrom pp. 21-33, as being a duplica 
tion of our Doc. CXXXVIII. ; and substitute for it an extract 
from Dablon s MS. Relation of 1673-79 (see Bibliographical 
Data of present volume), which covers Allouez s work in the 
missions of St. Mark and St. Jacques in 1674-75- We also 
substitute, for most of pp. 59-64 of Douniol, another extract 
from the Dablon MS., as being a fuller description of Laval s 
visit to La Prairie. 

We print the Douniol text in roman type, and matter 
substituted therefor in italic. In the MS. of 1673-79 a few 
minor corrections were made by Dablon; the words deleted 
by him are here printed in brackets. 







Pendant 1 annee 









During the year 167^. 


Missions des Outaouais. 

NOUS avons dans le pays des Outaouais plus de 
douze Missions particulieres, entre lesquelles 
il y en a trois principales, qui ont chacune une 
grande chapelle tres-bien d6core"e. 

La premiere de ces trois Missions est Sainte-Marie 
du Sault, k 1 extremite orientale du lac superieur. 
Elle est gouvernee par le P. Nouvel, qui, avec les 
Peres Dreuillettes et Bailloquet, travaillent tantot 
conjointement et tantot s6pare"ment, car ils doivent 
donner leurs soins non-seulement aux Algonquins du 
Sault, mais aussi & ceux d Ekaentouton, de Nipis- 
sing et de Mississague ; ce sont trois nations consi- 
de"rables, chez lesquelles les Peres vont hiverner, 
les unes apres les autres. 

Ils ont baptise, depuis un an, plus de 120 personnes, 
nonobstant toutes les oppositions que le demon 
apporte k 1 Evangile par di verses superstitions, aux- 
quelles ces peuples sont si attaches, qu ils ont bien 
ose" lever la hache par plusieurs fois sur la tete 
des missionnaires qui s opposent k ces coutumes 

La seconde mission est celle de Saint-Ignace, a 
Michillimakinac ; c est un lieu tres-avantageux pour 
la peche, qui se trouve precisement situ6 entre le lac 
des Hurons et celui des Illinois. 

C est Ik ou se sont ramasse"s, depuis assez peu de 
temps, les Hurons d Etionnontate", et quelques nations 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 217 

Missions to the Outaouais. 

IN the country of the Outaouais we have over 
twelve special Missions, among them being 
three chief ones, each of which has a large and 
handsomely decorated chapel. 

The first of these three Missions is Sainte Marie 
du Sault, at the eastern end of lake superior; it is 
under the charge of Father Nouvel. He and Fathers 
Dreuillettes and Bailloquet work therein, sometimes 
together and sometimes separately ; for they have to 
devote their attention not only to the Algonquins of 
the Sault, but also to those of Ekaentouton, of Nipis- 
sing, and of Mississague. These are three populous 
nations, with whom the Fathers go to spend the 
winter, one after another. 

Within a year, they have baptized over 120 per 
sons, notwithstanding all the opposition that the 
devil raises up against the Gospel by various super 
stitions --to which these peoples are so attached that 
they have even dared, on several occasions, to lift 
their hatchets over the heads of the missionaries 
who opposed those diabolical practices. 

The second mission is that of Saint Ignace, at 
Michillimakinac. This is an excellent fishing station 
situated exactly between the lake of the Hurons 
and that of the Illinois. 

At this point, the Hurons of Etionnontate" and 
some Algonquin tribes have gathered together within 
a short time. A considerable number from both 


algonquines. Un assez bon nombre des uns et des 
autres font profession publique de la Foi, et y vivent 
fort chre*tiennement ; les premiers sous la conduite 
dti P. Pierson, qui emploie beaucoup de zele et 
d industrie pour les instruire; les seconds ont eu 
le P. Nouvel et le P. Marquette pour pasteurs. 

La belle chapelle, qui fut acheve e il n y a qu un 
an, ne fut pas plutot ouverte, qu elle fut comme 
consacre"e par soixante-six baptemes. On y comptait 
quarante adultes Hurons avec treize enfants, et quinze 
adultes Algonquins avec trente-quatre enfants de la 
meme nation. Le vendredi-saint, on y precha la 
Passion en trois langues differentes. L adoration de 
la Croix s y fit avec grande pie te par cinq ou six 
diverses nations de Sauvages; et le jour de Paques, 
seize, tant Hurons que Huronnes, y firent leur 
premiere communion. 

Les c6re*monies qui ont eu lieu & Noel, et par les- 
quelles ces bons Sauvages ont honore" 1 Enfant Je"sus 
dans la creche, sont surprenantes ; on ne peut en etre 
te moin sans etre touch e" de devotion, de voir Notre- 
Seigneur faire triompher son enfance au milieu de 
I infidelit6. 

La troisieme Mission est celle de Saint- Francois- 
Xavier, un peu au delk de la baie des Puants. Elle 
est comme le centre de grand nombre de nations 
diffe"rentes qui sont aux environs. 

Le P. Andre" cultive celles qui sont dans la baie des 
Puants ; par sa fermete", il a su dompter ces esprits, 
qui e*taient les plus fe"roces et les plus superstitieux, 
en les assujettissant peu k peu et avec une Constance 
inebranlable, au joug de la Foi. Aussi peut-on dire 
qu il a une 6glise toute forme" e ; elle est compose* e de 

1673-77] RELATION OF f 67^ 219 

nations publicly profess the Faith, and live in a very 
Christian manner : the former are under the direction 
of Father Pierson, who displays much zeal and skill 
in instructing them; the latter have Father Nouvel 
and Father Marquette for pastors. 

No sooner was the fine chapel that was finished a 
year ago opened than it was consecrated, as it were, 
by sixty-six baptisms. There were fourteen adult 
Hurons, with thirteen children; and fifteen adult 
Algonquins, with thirty-four children of the same 
nation. On Good Friday, the Passion was preached 
in three different languages. The adoration of the 
Cross was performed with much piety by five or six 
different Savage nations; and on Easter Sunday 
sixteen Hurons, both men and women, made their 
first communion. 

The ceremonies that took place at Christmas, by 
which these good Savages honored the Infant Jesus 
in the cradle, are astonishing; it is impossible to 
witness them without being touched with devotion 
at seeing Our Lord cause his infancy to triumph in 
the midst of infidelity. 

The third Mission is that of Saint Fra^ois Xavier, 
a short distance beyond the bay des Puants. It is a 
sort of center for a great many nations dwelling in 
its vicinity. 

Father Andre ministers to those who live on the 
bay des Puants ; by his firmness he has succeeded in 
subduing their minds, which were most ferocious 
and superstitious, by gradually, and with unswerving 
constancy, subjecting them to the yoke of the Faith. 
Thus it may be said that he has a church fully 
formed ; it consists of four or five hundred Christians. 


quatre & cinq cents chr^tiens ; le Pere en a baptisd 
jusqu a cent quarante la derniere anne"e. 

Le P. Allouez a soin des Outagamis et des Mas- 
coutins, dont il a admis au bapteme, depuis un an, 
plus de cent soixante. La croix que ce missionnaire 
a planted au milieu de ces bourgades, y est en 
veneration, et le nom de Jesus-Christ est adore" 
avec grand respect, dans ces terres sauvages et infi- 
deles. ... La chapelle d ecorce, que le Pere 
a dress6e dans le bourg des Mascoutins, se remplit 
tous les jours, a diverses reprises. Trente-sept 
adultes et soixante- quinze enfants y ont 6t6 baptises, 
et on y compte jusqu* a douze nations, qui sont de 
trois langues diffe"rentes, et qui ne font pas moins de 
vingt mille ames ramass6es en ce seul bourg. Le 
P. Silvy est alle" pour aider le P. Allouez dans ses 
travaux auxquels il ne pouvait plus suffire. 


P. Claude Allouez raconte ainsi ce qui s 1 est fait 
dans ces Missions. 

La Mission de S. Jacques du MachKoutench, KiKabouas, 
MiamiSj &c. est bien moins auancfa que I autre. Je nai 
pu y vaquer que par ces visiles court es par ce que Je n auois 
pas de monde pour m y mener au temps quil falloit. 
Depuis V annte passe"e fy ai baptist 28 personnes dont 3 
sont adultes. 

II y a de grandes dispositions a la foi dans le cceur de 
ces peuples. Les MachKoutens conservent toujours un 
grand respect pour la croix qui est plantte chez eux. Le 
bras de cette croix ayant ett rompu et jett a terre par un 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 221 

The Father baptized as many as a hundred and forty 
last year. 

Father Allouez has charge of the Outagamis and 
Mascoutins, one hundred and sixty of whom he has 
admitted to baptism within a year. The cross 
that this missionary planted amid these villages is 
venerated there, and the name of Jesus Christ is 
adored with great respect in all these wild and pagan 
lands. . . . The bark chapel which the Father 
has erected in the village of the Mascoutins is filled 
several times every day. Thirty-seven adults and 
seventy-five children have been baptized in it; there 
are as many as twelve tribes, speaking three differ 
ent languages, and comprising no less than twenty 
thousand souls, gathered in this village alone. Fa 
ther Silvy went there to help Father Allouez in his 
labors, to which he was no longer equal. 47 


FATHER Claude Allouez thus relates what has been 
accomplished in these Missions: 


" The Mission of St. Jacques to the Machkoutench, 
Kikabouas, Miamis, and other tribes, is far less advanced 
than the other. I have only been able to attend to it by 
these short visits, as I had no one to take me thither at the 
proper time. Since last year I have baptized there 28 
persons, of whom j are adults. 

There are strong inclinations to the faith in the hearts 
of these peoples. The Machkoutens always cherish a great 
respect for the cross which is planted among them. The 
arm of this cross having been broken and thrown down in 
a heavy gale of wind, they removed it, and housed it very 


vent impe"tueux, Us Vont retire" et serre" bien proprement 
pour me le rendre. Les Miamis n ont pas moins de respect 
pour celle qui est chez eux. Vnjeunefran$ois qui ne gocioit 
parmi eux se mettant en cotere, tira son e pe e pour se venger 
d un larcin qui lui auoit e te fait. Le Capitaine Miami 
pour Vappaiser, lui montra la croix qui est plante e au bout de 
sa cabane et lui dit: voila le bois de la Robe noire; il nous 
apprend a prier Dieu et a ne nous pas mettre en coltre. 
Ce m$me capitaine deuant que de mourir au mois d avril 
dernier apres auoir demande" la Robe noire et ne Vayant 
pu voir par ce qu il est mart a plus de 30 lieues du lieu ou 
f e"tois, il voulut qu on port at ses os pour fare enter re s pres 
de la croix, au lieu ou la Robe noire auoit sa chapelle, ce 
qui a e"te" fait. 

II y a en ce pays quelqu espece d idolatrie, car outre la 
tete du bosuf sauvage avec ses comes qu ils tiennent dans 
leurs cabanes pour Vinvoquer, Us ont les peaux a" ours 
ecorche s par la tete qui ne sont point f endues par le milieu. 
Us y laissent la t$te, les yeux, le museau qu Us peignent 
ordinairement de verd. Ils eTevent la tete sur un poteau au 
milieu de leur cabane. Le reste de la peau pend le long 
du poteau jusqu 1 a terre. Ils Vinvoquent dans leurs ma 
ladies, guerres et autres ne cessite s. II plut a Dieu de me 
conduire ce print emps dans la cabane d"un capitaine KiKa- 
boua ou ayant apergu une de ces idoles, Je le de"sabusai 
tellement quil me promit de faire des que son fils seroit 
venu, de cette peau d ours une robe pour ses enfants. Vne 
femme des MachKoutens quirfe toit encore que cate chum$ne 
apres auoir dit souvent a son mari d" 6ter de deuant ses 
yeux une semblable statue, et ne pouvant V obtenir, un 
Jour qu il finvoquoit en un festin solemnel pour la gue"rison 
de cette femme fort malade, elle sortit de la cabane au 
commencement de V invocation, et comme elle ne pouvoit 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 223 

carefully, to return it to me. The Miamis hold their cross 
in no less respect. A young frenchman who was trading 
with them, getting into a passion, drew his sword to avenge 
himself for a theft committed upon his goods. The 
Miami Captain, to appease him, showed him the cross, 
which is planted at the end of his cabin, and said to him: 
1 Behold the tree of the black Gown! He teaches us to 
pray and not to lose our temper. The same captain, before 
he died, in the month of april last, after inquiring for 
the black Gown and being unable to see him, inasmuch as 
he was dying more than jo leagues from the place where I 
was, requested that his bones might be brought to be 
buried near the cross on the spot where the black Gown had 
his chapel, which was carried out. 

There exists in this country a species of idolatry; for, 
besides the head of the wild ox, with its horns, which they 
keep in their cabins to invoke, they possess bearskins, 
stripped from, the head and not cut open in the middle. 
They leave on them the head, the eyes, and the snout, 
which they usually paint green. The head is raised on a 
pole in the middle of their cabin, the remainder of the 
skin hanging along the pole to the ground. They invoke 
it in their sicknesses, wars, and other necessities. This 
spring, it pleased God to direct me to the cabin of a Kika- 
boua captain, where, having noticed one of these idols, I 
undeceived him so thoroughly that he promised me, as soon 
as his son should come, to make of this bearskin a dress 
for his children. A woman of the Machkoutens, as yet 
only a catechumen, had often requested her husband, but 
without avail, to remove from her sight a similar effigy. 
One Day, when he was invoking it at a solemn feast for 
the recovery of this woman, who was very ill, she withdrew 
from the cabin at the beginning of the invocation; and as 
she could scarcely move, she dragged herself along as well 


quasi se remuer, elle se traina le mieux qu elle put dehors 
disant: cette idole me tue. 

Cette mission auroit besoin de 2 missionnaires a cause 
des 2 nations qui y sont et qui ont 2 langues diff ^rentes, et 
de la multitude du monde quit y a et qui vient tous les 
jours y demeurer en tres-grand nombre. 

Voicy ce q 9 le p. aloue"s dit de quelques moisquil a passe 
auec les outagamis en V anne"e 16*75. 

Depuis mes dernier s memoir es de / annfc passte J ay 
baptise" a s*. marc 52 per\s\sonnes entre lesquelles 12 sont 

Je ne pus aller en cette mission plustost que V aut\h\ome , 
apres que les sauuages eurent quite" leur village po 9 aller a 
la Chasse. Je les allay chercher dans les bois le long des 
riuieres et des estangs ou Us estoient a la Chasse du Castor 
et du Cerf. Je receus beaucoup de satisfaction de toutes 
les Cabannes que ie rencontray V espace de 4.0 lieiies. Leurs 
esprits estoient tous disposes a receuoir mes Instructions, a 
prier Dieu en quelq 9 temps et a quelque heure que ce fut, 
et a se mettre a genoux sur la nege. lors que ie les ren- 
controis hors de leurs Cabanes. Us me remercioient par 
tout de ce que festois alle" les voir pour les instruire. 

La prouidence de Dieu se seruit de deux Chasseurs po 9 
procurer le baptesme a vn pauurevieillard aueugle et extre- 
mement malade Car aussi tost quils m? eurent rencontre" 
et que ie leur eus apris que ie cherchois ce vieillard, Us 
quiterent leur Chasse, et me menerent che"s luy, Je r auois 
autrefois Instruit. J admiray en luy les operations de la 
grace, et ie fus surpris de voir de quelle maniere le s 1 . esprit 
I auoit dispos^ au baptesme. II fit d" abort le signe de la 
Croix, il conceuoit nos misteres, et il les expliquoit aux 
autres qui estoient p nt apres que ie luy eus parle de r incar- 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 225 

as she was able to the outside, exclaiming: This idol is 
killing me! 

This mission would require 2 missionaries on account 
of the 2 nations who dwell in it, who speak 2 different 
languages; and because of the multitude of people who are 
continually arriving, in great numbers, to take up their 
abode in it." 

Let us see what father aloue"s says of the few months 
which he spent with the outagamis in the year 1675. 

" Since my last accounts of the past year, I have baptized 
at st. marc 52 persons, among whom are 12 adults. 

"/ was unable to go to this mission earlier than the 
autumn, after the savages had left their village to go 
Hunting. I went in quest of them into the forest, along 
the rivers and ponds where they were Hunting Beaver and 
Deer. I experienced much consolation in all the Cabins that 
I encountered in the space 0/4.0 leagues. Their minds were 
all disposed to receive my Instructions; to pray to God, at 
whatever season or hour it might be; and to kneel on the 
snow when I met them outside of their Cabins. Every 
where they thanked me for going to see them to instruct 

The providence of God made use of two Hunters to 
obtain the baptism of a poor old man, blind and exceedingly 
ill. As soon as they had met me and I had informed them 
that I was seeking the old man, they left their Hunting 
and conducted me to his cabin. I had in former times 
Instructed him. I admired in him the operations of grace, 
and was surprised to see the way in which the holy ghost 
had prepared him for baptism. He made, first, the sign 
of the Cross. He understood our mysteries, and explained 
them to the others who were present. After I had spoken 
to him of the incarnation and the death and passion of 


nation de la mart et de la passion de J. C. ie luy mis entre 
les mains le Crucifix qu il apliqua sur ses yeux; et d une 
voix entre- Couple de sanglots il s escria par plusieurs fois, 
fils de Dieu aye s pitie" de moy, ie meurs faictes may viure 
auec vous dans le del. Apres que ie I eus baptise", il se 
mit a inuectiuer contre les diuinite s quil auoit autres fois 
adore es. A lie s miserables Dieux, disoit il, qui nous abuse s 
dans ce pays. Je nay plus de seruice a vous rendre il ny 
a que Celuy qui a faict le del et la terre, et toutes Choses; 
luy seul peut me guerir s il veut ie ne Grains point la 
mart puts que ie viuray a Jamais au del auec luy. Dieu 
voulut luy rendre la sante" po 9 en faire le predicateur de 
ses grandeurs; ie Vay veu cest hyuer dans son bourg, et 
J ay admire" sa ferueur. II est extremement Zelle" a 
deserter les fauces diuinite s de son pays, feruent au possible 
a prier Dieu, et particulierement a dire son Chape let. 
II le port tousjours a son Col, et il fy serre si estroitement 
qu on ne put V en retirer de peur dit il qu on ne me le 
derobe sans que ie puisse men aperceuoir. sa femme, ses 
enfans ses neueux estant tous tombe s malades, les Infidelles 
luy dirent que le Chapelet qu il portoit a son Col luy 
produisoit ce sujet d 1 affliction. II me le raconta; ie luy 
demenday s il croyoit quils disoient vray, et si cela estoit 
qu il me donnat son Chapelet; ie m 1 en donneray bien de 
garde, dit il; Us ne disent pas ce quils penssent; Car Us 
voyent bien qu il n y a que moy en bonne s ant e" pare e que ie 
me sers de mon Chapelet po 9 prier dieu. II s* apelle Joseph 

Apres q 9 les outagamis eurent fini leur Chasse, Us 
retournerent a leur bourg, ou ie demeuray deux moys 
pendant V hyuer auec eux. J eusbien des vices a Combatre 
et particulierement le libertinage, et les Ide"es super stitieuses. 
Ces pauures peuples sont dignes de Compassion, Car coe Us 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 227 

Jesus Christ, I placed in his hands the Crucifix; he pressed 
it upon his eyes, and, with a voice Broken by sobs, he cried 
out many times: Son of God, have pity on me; / am 
dying. Make me live with you in Heaven! After I had 
baptized him, he began to inveigh against the divinities 
whom he had formerly adored. Depart, miserable Gods, 
he said, who delude us in this country: I have no more 
service to render to you. There is only He who made 
Heaven, and earth, and all Things; he alone can cure me 
if he will. I do not Fear death, for I shall live Forever 
in Heaven with him. God was pleased to restore him to 
health, to make him the herald of his greatness. I -saw 
him this winter in his village and admired his fervor. 
He is extremely Zealous in decrying the false divinities of 
his country, and as fervent as possible in praying to God, 
especially in saying his Beads. He carries them always 
around his Neck and fastens them there so tightly that they 
cannot be removed, for fear, says he, lest they should 
be stolen from me without my perceiving it. His wife, 
children, and nephews having all fallen sick, the Infidels 
told him that the Rosary which he carried around his Neck 
had caused this affliction. He told me of the matter and 
I asked him if he believed that they spoke truthfully, 
adding that, if it were so, he should give me his Rosary. 
I shall take good care not to do so, he said. They do 
not say what they think, For they plainly see that I am the 
only one in good health, because I use my Rosary to pray 
to God. He is called Joseph nikalokita. 

" After the outagamis had finished their Hunting, they 
returned to their village, where I remained with them two 
months during the winter. I had many vices to Contend 
with, especially debauchery and superstitious Notions. 
These poor people are deserving of Compassion; For, as 
they are in Constant danger, it may be, of being taken 


sont Continuelement dans le danger, soit d estre pris et 
brusle s a petit feu par leurs ennemis, soit de mourir de 
/aim dans leurs voyages, et lors quils sont a la Chasse; 
Us ont entre eux coe vne tradition qui [il ] leur faict 
Croyre que s Us ont quelq 9 vision on plustost quelque reue, 
Us seront heureux a la Chasse et a la guerre et que deussent 
Us tomber entre les mains de leurs enemis, Us s en escha- 
peront. de la vient qu Us sont at ache s a Ces sortes de 
reues ou de visions coe a la vie: Les per es et meres esleuent 
a Cela leurs enfans des leur has age, et Us les acoutument 
a faire. de longs Junes po 9 se procurer des visions et po 9 
voir ou entendre quelque genie en dormant. Us le font 
d une maniere si exacte et si rigoureuse qu Us demeurent 
4 et 5 Jours et mesme dauantage sans manger n y boire 
aucunement. Je ne scay si le diable s 1 aparoit a eux soubs 
la forme de leurs pretendus genies, ou si leur cerueau vuide 
apres auoir \_manger} este" si long temps sans manger leur 
en faict Imaginer quelqu un; quoy qu Hen soit cette super 
stition faict vne peine extreme aux missionnaires et elle les 
empeche de baptiser le pluspart de ces peuples, dans la 
Crainte raisonnable qu il ny ayt en Cela quelque Chose de 
diabolique. Pour solidement establir le Christianisme nous 
n en auons baptise" que quelques vns que nous auons conneu 
auoir quite" tout es ces superstitions, vn de Ceux la ayant 
este" sollicite" par son pere a Jeunner pour tacher a voir 
quelque genie, il le refusa disant qu il estoit baptise", qu il 
Connoissoit le grand genie dont la robe noire leur par loit, 
et quiln auoit besoin d aucune autre diuinite", Et Comme 
son pere luy eut reproche 1 quil seroit vn ho e . de neant toute 
sa vie, il nimporte, luy repartit il ie seray grand Capitaine 
au del, et Dieu me rendra heureux en me mettant au pres 
de luy. L* on auoit difere" de baptiser le frere de ce feruent 
Chrestien par ce qu il auoit de la peine, a ne se noircir pas 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 229 

and burned at a slow fire by their enemies; or, it may be, of 
dying from hunger in their journeyings and when they are 
Hunting, they have among them a sort of tradition 
which makes them Believe that, if they have some vision, 
or rather some dream, they will be fortunate in Hunting 
and war; and that, should they fall into the hands of their 
enemies, they will escape from them. Thence it comes 
that they cling to dreams and visions of These kinds as 
they would to life. Fathers and mothers bring up their 
children in This idea from their earliest years; and they 
accustom them to make long Fasts, that they may obtain 
visions, and may see or hear some spirit in their sleep. 
They do this with such exactness and austerity as to go 4. 
or 5 Days, and even longer, without eating or drinking 
anything. I do not know whether the devil appears to 
them under the form of their pretended spirits, or whether 
their brains, weak from their having been so long without 
food, make them Imagine some spirit: be that as it may, 
this superstition gives extreme trouble to the missionaries, 
and prevents them from baptizing the greater number of 
these people, through the reasonable Fear lest there should 
be in It Something diabolical. In order to establish 
Christianity on a solid basis, we have baptized only a few, 
who, as we knew, had given up all these superstitions. 
One of These, having been entreated by his father to Fast, 
that he might try to see some spirit, refused him, saying 
that he was baptized, that he was Acquainted with the 
great spirit of whom the black gown spoke to them, and 
that he had no need of any other divinity. And, As his 
father had taunted him, saying that he would be a man of 
no account all his life, he replied to him: It matters 
not; I shall be a great Captain in Heaven, and God 
will make me happy by placing me near him. We 
had delayed to baptize the brother of this fervent 


le visage, Ce qui est vne marque de leur Jeune superstitieux, 
quoy qu il aportat po 9 excuse quit le faisoit faute a" autre 
Couleur po 9 se peindre le visage mats voyant qu il estoit le 
seul a qui on n* acor doit pas cette grace quoy qu on Veut 
accord^e a son frere, et a ses soeurs a qui il ne cedoit point 
d"ailleurs po 9 Vassiduitt a venir prier Dieu a la Chapelle, 
vn matin il se peignit le visage de blanc [a sa Cabane\ et 
s adressant a son pere; Je me moque luy dit il de tous ces 
petits genies que vo 9 me faictes chercher, ie veux obeir 
vniquement a la robe noire, qui me defend ce que vo 9 
m ordonne"s. II me vint en suite demander le Baptesme 
que J acor day a sa perseuerence. 

Le vendredy sainct la plus part de nos Chrestiens 
baiserent et adorent la Croix, les plus feruens en empor- 
terent Che s eux chascun vne petite que fauois benite po 9 la 
leur donner, et a fin qu 1 elle leur seruit Coe d* image deuant 
laquelle Us fissent leurs prier es. 

Je n* ay pas de peine d introduire parmy eux les jeunes 
de V eglise puis q 9 ce leur est vne Chose si ord re . de Jeuner 
que quiquonque parmy eux ne jeune pas de temps en temps 
il passe po 9 vn mechant ho*, aussi J ay creu deuoir sancti- 
fier leurs superstitions mesmes, et d un jeune Criminel en 
faire vnjune meritoire. Je leur ay enseigne" de jeuner le 
caresme, et ie les ay aduertis que ce n estoit pas po 9 voir 
quelq 9 petit genie mats po 9 mater la Chair, et po 9 faire 
penitence des peche s qu ils commetoient Contre la diuine 

Tous nos Chrestiens ont vne grande affection a leur 
chapelet. Lors qu on leur a faict present de quelque Chose 
Us ne la gardent pas ordinairement, mais Us la donnent a 
d autres il n y a que po 9 la Chapelet qu ils ne gardent 
pas cette coustume. Vn jeune ho e . dans la Chaleur dujeu, 
se laissa emporter a jouer le sien, et il le per dit, il en fut 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 231 

Christian , because it was with difficulty that he 
refrained from blackening his face, Which is indicative of 
their superstitious Fast, although he alleged, as an 
excuse, that he had no other Color with which to paint his 
face. But, seeing that he was the only one to whom this 
grace had not been accorded, although it had been granted 
to his brother and his sisters, to whom he did not other 
wise yield in diligence in coming to pray to God in the 
Chapel, one morning [in his Cabin} he painted his face 
white; and, addressing his father, he said, I pay no heed 
to all these petty spirits whom you would have me seek. I 
will be obedient only to the black gown, who forbids me 
what you enjoin upon me. He came to me afterward, to 
ask for Baptism, which I granted to his perseverance. 

On good friday, the greater number of our Christians 
kissed and venerated the Cross. The more fervent carried 
to their homes each a small Cross that I had blessed to give 
to them, that it might serve As an image before which 
they could offer their prayers. 

" / had no trouble in introducing among them the fasts 
of the church, since it is so usual a Thing for them to 
Fast that whoever among them does not fast from time to 
time is looked upon as a wicked man. So I deemed it a 
duty to sanctify their very superstitions, and to make of a 
Guilty fast a meritorious one. I have taught them to fast 
in lent, and have warned them that it was not for the 
purpose of seeing some paltry spirit, but for mortifying 
the Flesh and doing penance for the sins that they com 
mitted Against the divine majesty. 

" A II our Christians have a great affection for their 
Beads. When a present is made to them of Anything, 
they do not usually keep it but give it away to others. It 
is only in regard to the Rosary that they do not observe 
this custom. A young man, in the Heat of Play, went 


si afflige" quil en pleura toute la nuit, et il vint le lende- 
mains en Confesser coe d une grande faute. Les francois 
sont merueilleusement edifies de les voir pendant la messe 
reciter leur Chapelet a deux Chceurs, et pratiquer auec 
exactitude tous les autres exercices de piete . 

Dieu ma faict connoistre par experience cette anne"e 
quilfaict misericorde a qui il luyplaict, et non pas aceux 
a qui souuent les ho es . voudroient bien quil V a fit. II a 
permis souuent que mes trauaux fussent vtiles a ceux a qui 
ie ne songeois pas et qu Us fussent inutiles a Ceux po 9 [qui~\ 
le salut des quels ie les entreprenois. au mois de Januier 
J allay vers le petit lac de s*. francois a deux lieues d icy, 
J y trouuay vn sauuage Chrestien moribond que ie disposay 
a la mort, J } auois dessein d 1 aller en vn endroit ou i apris 
depuis quun Jeune francois estoit a V extremite"; mats la 
nouuelle qu on m aporta que les outagamis estoient reuenus 
de leur chasse, et qu il y auoit bien des malades parmy eux 
me fit retourner sur mes pas; cependent le Jeunne franco is 
mourut sans Confession dans vne Cabanne sauuage, II 
auoit passe quatre mois auparauant deuant nostre Eglise; 
ie V auois sollicite" a se confesser, il n auoit pas voulu me 
Croire, et Dieu en suite ne voulut pas luy faire retourner 
V occasion quil auoit negligee. Estant arriud aux outa 
gamis ie trouuay vn pauure sauuage qui languissoit depuis 
long temps, et que ie disposay a la mort par le Baptesme. 
Dans le mesme endroit quoy que J entrasse tous les Jours 
dans les Cabannes vn enfant mourut sans baptesme. parce 
qu il mourut subitement vne heure apres que ie fus sorty 
de la Cabane ou il estoit, ce sont les plus grandes croix 
dont Dieu afflige vn pauure missionnaire, mats il le Console 
quand il luy plait, peii de temps apres ce\s\t accident 
\_fut arriue"\ des sauuages arriuerent de nouueau, ie 
baptisay vn de leurs enfans qui ne faisoit que de naistre et 

1673-77] RELA TION OF 1675 

so far as to stake his Beads, and lost them. He was so 
afflicted over it that he wept all night, and came the next 
day to Confess it, as a great fault. The french are 
wonderfully edified at seeing them, during mass, recite 
their Beads in alternate Choirs, and practice with exactness 
all other exercises of piety. 

1 God has taught me by experience, this year, that he 
has mercy on whomsoever it pleases him, and not on those 
to whom oftentimes men would much wish that he should 
extend it. He has many times permitted my labors to be 
of use to those of whom I was not thinking, and to prove 
useless to Those for [whom] whose salvation I had under 
taken them. In the month of January, I was going toward 
the little lake of st. francois, two leagues from here. There 
I found a Christian savage dying, and prepared him for 
death. I had intended going to a place in vvhich I after 
ward learned that a Young frenchman was at the point of 
death. But the news that was brought me, that the 
outagamis had returned from their hunting and that many 
of them were sick, made me retrace my steps. Meanwhile, 
the Young frenchman died in the Cabin of a savage, 
without Confession. Four months previously, lie had 
passed by our Church; I had entreated him to come to 
confession, but he paid no Heed to me; and God, in conse 
quence, did not choose that he should find again the 
opportunity which he had neglected. When I arrived at 
the outagamis, I found a poor savage who had languished* 
for a long time, and whom I prepared by Baptism for 
death. In the same place, although I went every Day into 
the Cabins, a child died without baptism dying suddenly r , 
an hour after my leaving the Cabin in which it dwelt. 
These are the very heavy crosses with which God afflicts 
a poor missionary; but he Consoles him when it pleases him. 
A short time after this accident \}iad happened^, some 


qui mourut vn Jour apres son baptesme. auant que de 
quiter les outagamis le s l . Esprit me fit apart fr a nostre 
chape lie deux enfans qui estoient fort ntalades que ie 
baptisay, Us moururent peu de temps apres mon despart. 
apres que J eus acheue" la mission des outagamis, J apris 
que le Capitaine miami qui auoit este" mon hoste estoit a 
V extremite" ie luy auois difere" Jusq 9 a lors le baptesme, 
parce que quoy quil y parut asse"s dispose" il ne pouuoit en 
qua lite de Capitaine sempecher de s engager par bien seance 
aux superstitions des Jeunnes gens. J allay ches luy mais 
il ny estoit pas, et lors qu il y venoit po 9 me trouuer et 
estre baptise" il mourut en chemin sans baptesme; Dieu me 
refusa celuy la po 9 lequel J aurois faict le voyage, mais 
ma peine ne fut pas inutile, Car en la place de ce Capitaine 
II macorda deux autres personnes que ie baptisay auant 
.leur mort. 

Le P. Jacques Marquette a commence" une quatri- 
eme Mission, qui est celle des Illinois. Ce sont les 
premiers peuples qu il a rencontre s dans le voyage 
qu il fit 1 an passe", pour la de"couverte de la mer du 
Sud. Ce Pere est alle", le printemps dernier, jeter 
les fondements de cette Mission; c est k son retour 
qu il a glorieusement fini sa vie au milieu de ses 
travaux, sur les bords memes du lac des Illinois. 
Nous donnons ici le narre" de sa mort et des circon- 
stances remarquables qui 1 ont accompagne"e. 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 235 

savages again arrived; I baptized one of their children, 
only just born, and it died on the Day after its baptism. 
Before leaving the outagamis, the holy Ghost led me to bring 
to our chapel two children who were very sick; I baptized 
them and they died a short time after my departure. 
After I had finished the mission to the outagamis, I 
learned that the miami Captain who had once been my 
host was dying. I had Until then deferred his baptism, 
because, although he seemed sufficiently well disposed, he 
could not, on account of his rank as Captain, through 
courtesy, refrain from involving himself in the supersti 
tions of the Young men. I went to his house, but he was 
not there; and, while he was coming to seek me to be 
baptized, he died on the way without baptism. God 
refused me that one for whom I made the journey, but my 
trouble was not unprofitable; For, in place of this Captain, 
He granted me two other persons, whom I baptized before 
their deaths. 

Father Jacques Marquette has begun a fourth 
Mission, that of the Illinois. These are the first 
tribes that he met on the journey which he made last 
year to discover the Southern sea. The Father went, 
last spring, to lay the foundations of that Mission ; 
and on his return he gloriously ended his life in the 
midst of his labors, on the very shores of the lake of 
the Illinois. We give here an account of his death, 
and of the remarkable circumstances that accom 
panied it. 48 


Missions des Iroquois. 

LES Iroquois font cinq nations diffe"rentes, et sont 
scare s en huit bourgades plus considerables, 
en chacune desquelles nous avons une chapelle 
ou s assemblent tous les jours les nouveaux chre tiens 
pour y faire leurs prieres et y recevoir les instruc 
tions que les missionnaires leur donnent chaque jour 
aux heures regimes. Le P. Bruyas, qui est le supe"- 
rieur de tous, a gagn6 a Je"sus-Christ grand nombre 
des principaux d Agnie, qui est le bourg de la nation 
la plus voisine des Hollandais. Voici en peu de 
mots ce qu il en mande par ses dernieres lettres. 


/"">ETTE anne"e pourrait fournir une assez ample ma- 
\^t tiere de relations, tant par le nombre de ceux 
qui ont re9U le bapteme, qui monte jusqu a quatre- 
vingts, que par la ferveur des nouveaux chre tiens. 
Je ne touche que ce qu a fait un nomme* Assendasse", 
qui passe sans contredit pour un des plus conside 
rables de la nation. Apres que je 1 eus baptise", il 
voulut que toute sa famille resut le bapteme comme 
lui. Les maladies et la mort s etant jet^es ensuite 
dans sa maison, il a souffert constamment tous les 
reproches que ses parents lui en ont fait, comme s il 
cut attire" sur lui tous ces malheurs par son bapteme. 
On en est venu jusque-la, qu on lui a pens donner 
la gloire d etre le premier martyr des Iroquois. 
Un de ses proches, ne pouvant souffrir qu il fut 

1 673 -77] RELA TION OF 1675 2 s7 

The Iroquois Missions. 

THE Iroquois consist of five different nations, and 
are divided among eight villages of greater 
importance, in each of which we have a chapel 
wherein the new Christians meet every day to say 
their prayers, and to hear the instructions given 
them daily by the missionaries at stated hours. 
Father Bruyas, who is the superior of all, has won 
to Jesus Christ a great many of the chief personages 
of Agnie", the village of the nation nearest to the 
Dutch. Here in a few words is the information 
given by him in his last letters. 


* < ""Pms year might supply sufficiently ample mate- 
1 rial for relations, both through the number 
of those who have been baptized, amounting to 
eighty, and through the fervor of the new Chris 
tians. I refer merely to what has been done by one 
Assendasse, who is regarded beyond contradiction, as 
being one of the most notable of his nation. After 
I had baptized him, he desired that all his family 
should receive baptism, as he had done. Afterward, 
when sickness and death attacked his household, he 
endured with constancy all the reproaches addressed 
to him by his kindred for that act, as if he had 
drawn down all these misfortunes upon himself by 
his baptism. Things came to such a pass that they 
almost afforded him the glory of being the first 
martyr among the Iroquois. 


chre"tien, s e"tant a dessein & demi enivre", se jeta sur 
lui, lui arracha le chapelet et le crucifix qu il portait 
pendus au col, et le menace de le tuer, s il ne veut 
renoncer a tout cela. Tue-moi, dit-il, je serai heu- 
reux de mourir pour un si bon sujet. Je ne regrette 
pas ma vie en la donnant pour preuve de ma foi. 

Comme il a du credit dans ce bourg, son exemple 
a attir6 a la Foi un nombre tres-considerable de ses 
compatriotes. II y a eu peu de dimanches cet hiver 
que je n aie baptist quelque enfant ou quelque 
adulte. Si je racontais tout ce qui se passe ici pour 
le progres du Christianisme, ceux qui 1 entendraient 
auraient sujet de louer Dieu, qui commence k etre 
glorifi6 parmi ces infideles. 

Pour moi, j attribue ces conversions la bonte de 
la Tres-Sainte-Vierge, dont on nous a envoy6 une 
image miraculeuse de Notre-Dame de Foye. Je puis 
dire que, depuis que nous possedons ce precieux 
de"pot, I ^glise d Agni a chang6 entierement de face. 
Les anciens chr6tiens ont repris leur premiere f erveur, 
et le nombre des nouveaux va s augmentant de jour 
en jour. Nous exposames cette pre"cieuse statue le 
jour de rimmacule e Conception de la Bienheureuse 
Vierge avec toute la pompe possible. Ce fut en 
chantant les litanies en langue iroquoise. Nous la 
de"couvrons seulement le samedi au soir, par le chant 
des memes litanies ; et tout le dimanche elle demeure 
exposed aux yeux de nos chre tiens, qui s assemblent 
ce jour-la trois fois, pour reciter le chapelet devant 
leur bonne Mere et protectrice. Les infideles me 
disent que, depuis que I image de Marie est dans leur 
bourg, ils ne craignent plus rien ; et de fait, ils ont 
reu des effets bien visibles de sa protection. 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 289- 

i < 

One of his relatives, who could not endure that 
he should be a Christian, having purposely become 
half intoxicated, threw himself upon him; he 
snatched away the rosary and the crucifix that Assen- 
dass wore suspended from his neck, and threatened 
to kill him if he would not renounce all those things. 
Kill me, he said, I shall be happy to die for so 
good a cause. I feel no regret in giving my life in 
testimony of my faith. 

"As he is esteemed in the village, his example 
has attracted a very considerable number of his 
countrymen to the Faith. There have been but few 
Sundays this winter whereon I have not baptized 
a child or an adult. Were I to relate all that 
occurs here for the furtherance of Christianity, 
those who would hear it would have reason to praise 
God, who is beginning to be glorified among these 

" For my part, I attribute these conversions to the 
goodness of the Most Blessed Virgin, a miraculous 
image of whom, as Our Lady of Foye, has been sent 
us. I can state that, since we have possessed that 
precious deposit, the church of Agni6 has completely 
changed its appearance. The older Christians have 
resumed their former fervor, and the number of new 
ones increases daily. We displayed this precious 
statue, with all possible pomp, on the feast of the 
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, while 
the litanies were chanted in the Iroquois tongue. 
We uncovered it only on Saturday evening during 
the chanting of the same litanies; and throughout 
the whole of Sunday it remained exposed to the eyes 
of our Christians, who met three times [that day for 
the purpose of reciting the rosary before their good 


Le P. Jacques de Lamberville, qui prend som de la 
Mission de Saint-Pierre k Gandaouague, seconde 
bourgade du pays d Agni6, a la consolation d envoyer 
au ciel beaucoup de petits enfants, morts apres le 
bapteme. Cette Eglise, quoique la plus petite que 
nous ayons dans ces Missions, ne le cede & aucune 
en ferveur. 

Le Pere espere de 1 augmenter en peu de temps 
d un nombre tres-considerable. Les anciens viennent 
eux-memes & la priere, et y exhortent la jeunesse. 
Enfin, si 1 eau-de-vie etait bannie de ces quartiers, 
1 on verrait bientot tout ce bourg devenir chre"tien. 


LA seconde nation est celle des Onneiouts qui ont 
tou jours passe pour les plus cruels de ces 
T>arbares, et qui sont a present si changes par les 
soins du P. Millet, qu on peut dire que de loups ils 
sont devenus agneaux. 

Plusieurs capitaines et beaucoup d anciens ont em- 
brass^ la foi cette annee. Un, entre autres, des plus 
notables a 6t6 baptise publiquement avec sa femme, 
et marie en face de 1 Eglise. II a ensuite reju la 
sainte Communion, et est devenu cat6chiste et pre- 
dicateur. Pendant la chasse d hiver, sa cabane e*tait 
une chapelle dans les bois, ou il faisait les prieres le 
matin et le soir, en bannissant toutes les supersti 
tions, et repandant partout une si bonne odeur, qu il 
faisait vivre en Chretiens les infideles meme qui chas- 
saient pres de lui. A son retour de la chasse, pour 
eViter les occasions de 1 ivrognerie, qui sont fre- 
quentes en ce temps-Ik dans le bourg, il s est eloigne 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 241 

Mother and protectress. The infidels tell me that, 
since Mary s image is in their village, they fear 
nothing; and, in fact, they have received very 
evident marks of her protection." 

Father Jacques de Lamberville who has charge of 
the Mission of Saint Pierre at Gandaouague", the sec 
ond village of the Agnie" country, has had the con 
solation of sending to heaven many little children, 
who died after baptism. This Church, although the 
smallest of all in these Missions, is behind none of 
them in fervor. 

The Father hopes shortly to increase it by a very 
considerable number of persons. The elders them 
selves come to prayers and exhort the young men to 
do the same. Finally, if brandy were banished from 
this quarter, we would soon see the whole of that 
village become Christian. 



HE second nation is that of the Onneiouts, who 
have always been considered the most cruel of 
these barbarians; but they are now so changed 
through Father Millet s care that it may be said that 
from wolves they have become lambs. 

Several captains and many elders have embraced 
the faith this year. Among others, one of the most 
notable men was publicly baptized with his wife, and 
married before the Church. He afterward received 
holy Communion, and became a catechist and 
preacher. During the winter hunt, his cabin was a 
chapel in the woods, wherein he said prayers morn 
ing and evening, banishing all superstitions from it. 
And so fragrant was the odor of his virtues that he 
made even the infidels who hunted near him live like 


de deux lieues, s e"tant fait une cabane se pare e, d ou 
il ne manque point de venir tous les samedis pour 
assister, le lendemain, au service divin. 

II y a plusieurs autres des principaux de ce bourg 
qui sont anime s de la meme ferveur; ce qui a 
donne" occasion au missionnaire d e"tablir parmi eux 
la Sainte-Famille, pour conserver et accroitre ce 
premier esprit du Christianisme et ce zele du salut 
des ames. 


LE P. Jean de Lamberville est a Onnontague"; c est 
le bourg de la troisieme nation, ou Garakontie 
donne tou jours des marques de sa fermet dans la 
foi, et de I amiti6 qu il a pour les Francais. 

Le Pere s est acquis un grand credit par 1 usage 
qu il sait faire de plusieurs remedes, ce qui lui donne 
entree dans toutes les cabanes, et acces aupres de 
tous les malades, de sorte qu il lui en e"chappe peu 
qu il ne baptise avant qu ils meurent. Outre 1 emploi 
qu il a dans Onnontagu6, il est oblige" de faire de 
temps en temps des courses aux environs. A la 
derniere qu il fit jusqu a dix lieues du bourg, il 
arriva heureusement pour baptiser un agonisant, qui 
mourut bientot apres. Puis, ayant passe" une riviere, 
il trouva plusieurs Chretiens malades, qu il confessa; 
puis, y joignant la saignee, il arriva que, par le 
moyen de la me decine temporelle et de la spirituelle, 
Dieu leur rendit la sante\ II baptisa encore en ce 
meme endroit un homme et une femme, qui e"taient 
tres-bien disposes. II lui fallut en meme temps tra- 
vailler a pr6parer au sacrement une autre femme qui 
avait de grandes aversions des Franjais et de la Foi, 

1673-77] RELATION OF ifyjs 243 

Christians. Upon his return from hunting, in order 
to avoid occasions for drunkenness, which are fre 
quent at that time in the village, he removed to a 
distance of two leagues, and erected a separate cabin, 
whence he fails not to come, every Saturday, to 
attend divine service on the following day. 

Several others among the notable men of this 
village are animated with the same fervor; this has 
given the missionary an opportunity for establishing 
the confraternity of the Holy Family among them, 
to preserve and increase this first spirit of Christian 
ity, and this zeal for the salvation of souls. 


FATHER Jean de Lamberville is at Onnontague; 
this is the village of the third nation, where 
Garakontie continues to give evidence of his firmness 
in the faith, and of his friendship for the French. 

The Father has acquired great influence by his 
skill in using various remedies. This gives him 
entrance to all the cabins and access to all the sick, 
so that few escape who are not baptized before they 
die. In addition to his occupation in Onnontague, 
he is compelled from time to time to make excur 
sions in the vicinity. On the last one that he made, 
ten leagues from the village, he fortunately arrived 
in time to baptize a dying man, who expired shortly 
afterward. Then, after crossing a river, he found 
several sick Christians, whom he confessed ; he then 
bled them, and it came to pass that, by means of the 
spiritual and temporal remedies, God restored them 
to health. He also baptized, at the same place, a 
man and a woman who were very well disposed. At 
the same time, he had to endeavor to prepare for that 


il y r6ussit si bien qu elle me rita de recevoir le bap- 
teme avant que de mourir. A peine avait-il acheve\ 
qu il lui fallut promptement repasser la riviere pour 
saigner un jongleur malade ; mais ne le trouvant pas 
digne du bapteme, le Pere se mit incontinent en 
route pour aller, a deux lieues de Ik, le confe"rer a 
une femme et a un enfant qui rejurent en meme 
temps la saute", apres les remedes qu il leur donna. 
Voilk comme un missionnaire doit etre tout k tous, 
ne laissant e"chapper aucune occasion pour gagner les 
ames k Jesus-Christ. C est ce que le Pere fait et au 
dedans et au dehors d Onnontague. Aussi a-t-il 
augment^ cette anne"e son e"glise de soixante-douze 
Chretiens, parmi lesquels quarante sont morts apres 
le bapteme, ainsi que plusieurs adultes, entre autres 
quelques captifs d Andastogue, qu il a baptises au 
milieu des feux dans lesquels ils sont morts. 


LE P. de Carheil n est pas si heureux parmi la 
quatrieme nation, qui est celle des Oiogouins; 
ils sont devenus si superbes et si insolents, qu ils 
1 ont assez rudement maltrait6 quand ils e"taient k 
l 6tat d ivrognerie, ils ont meme renvers6 une partie 
de la chapelle ; mais ces rebuts ne lui font pas perdre 
courage, et en recompense Dieu lui a donn6 la con 
solation d avoir mis cette anne"e vingt et un enfants 
dans le ciel et probablement onze adultes, morts 
apres le bapteme; ce n a pas 6t6 sans livrer bien des 

Voici comme il ddcrit la peine qu il a eue pour 
baptiser une jeune femme, d ou Ton jugera des 
.autres. Elle ne s est rendue, dit-il, qu k 1 extre mite , 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 245. 

sacrament a woman who had a great aversion to the 
French and to the Faith. He succeeded so well that 
she was worthy of receiving baptism before she 
died. He had barely finished when he was obliged 
promptly to recross the river, to bleed a sick juggler ; 
but, as he did not deem him worthy of baptism r 
the Father set out at once to go two leagues from 
there, and administer it to a woman and a child, who 
at the same time were restored to health through the 
medicines which he gave them. 

Thus a missionary must be all things to all men,, 
allowing no opportunity to escape him for winning, 
souls to Jesus Christ. This is what the Father does 
both in and out of Onnontague. Consequently he 
has this year increased his church by seventy-two 
Christians, forty of whom died after baptism, as well 
as many adults; among these were some captives 
from Andastogue, whom he baptized amid the fires 
in which they died. 


FATHER de Carheil is not so fortunate in the midst 
of the fourth nation, that of the Oiogouins; 
they became so arrogant and insolent that they quite 
roughly ill-treated him when they were intoxicated, 
and they even tore down a portion of his chapel. 
But these repulses have not made him lose courage ; 
and, as a reward, God has given him the consolation 
of having this year placed twenty-one children in 
heaven, and probably eleven adults also, who died 
after baptism ; but this was not done without many 

He describes as follows the trouble that he had in 
baptizing a young woman, and from this everything 


et je ne 1 ai que par la patience, par la dou 
ceur et par la Constance & espe*rer d elle ce que tous 
les rebuts que j en souffrais avaient pense" plusieurs 
fois me faire de sespe rer. Elle permettait facilement 
que je la visitasse, apres quelques remedes que je 
lui avals donn6s. Elle me laissait parler de toutes 
autres choses que de la principale, qui e"tait le salut 
de son ame. Sitot que j ouvrais la bouche pour lui en 
insinuer quelques mots, elle entrait dans des empor- 
tements qui e"taient surprenants, et que je n avais 
jamais remarque s dans aucun Sauvage. J e"tais 
contraint de me retirer au meme instant, de peur de 
1 irriter encore davantage, et de la porter k un endur- 
cissement sans remede. Comme sa maladie n etait 
qu une langueur cause"e par les vers qui la rongeaient 
insensiblement, deux mois se passerent sans que je 
discontinuasse de la visiter tous les jours, et sans 
qu elle cessat de me rebuter de la meme maniere, et 
meme avec des redoublements de colere, qui m obli- 
gerent enfin de me presenter seulement devant elle 
sans lui dire mot. Je tachais toutefois de lui dire des 
yeux et d un visage plein de compassion ce que je 
n osais plus lui dire de bouche. Et comme un jour 
je me fus aperu qu elle paraissait touch e"e exte"rieure- 
ment de quelques petits services que je lui rendais 
en lui faisant du feu, dans 1 abandon ou je la voyais, 
personne n ayant plus soin d elle, je cms qu elle 
souffrirait que je lui parlasse de ce que je de"sirais 
uniquement pour elle, et qu elle avait toujours re 
pousse" avec horreur. En effet, elle me laissa appro- 
cher, et m ecouta assez longtemps, sans entrer dans 
ses emportements ordinaires ; mais pourtant avec des 
agitations de corps qui marquaient celles de son 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6js 247 

else may be judged. " She yielded," he says, " only 
at the last moment; and I won her solely by patience, 
by gentleness, and by constancy in hoping to obtain 
from her what all the repulses that I experienced 
had almost made me, several times, despair of ever 
obtaining. She was quite willing that I should visit 
her, after I had given her some medicine. She 
allowed me to speak of all things except the principal 
one, which was the salvation of her soul. As soon 
as I opened my mouth to say a few words about it, 
she would fly into fits of anger which were astonish 
ing, and which I had never observed in any Savage. 
At the same time, I was compelled to withdraw to 
avoid irritating her still further, lest I should pro 
duce in her a hardness of heart beyond remedy. As 
her illness was only a prostration caused by the 
worms that gradually ate her away, two months 
passed without my discontinuing my daily visits to 
her, and without her ceasing to repel me in the same 
manner and, finally with such increased paroxysms 
of anger that I was at last compelled to present my 
self before her without saying a word. I endeavored, 
however, to express by my eyes, and a countenance 
full of compassion, what I no longer dared to say 
with my lips. And one day, when I noticed that 
she seemed outwardly touched by some slight serv 
ices that I rendered her, by making a fire for her, 
when I saw her so abandoned because no one took 
any care of her, I thought that she would suffer me 
to speak to her of my sole desire on her behalf, 
which she had always repelled with horror. In fact, 
she allowed me to approach her, and listened to me 
for some time without becoming angry as usual, 


esprit combattu des diffe rents mouvements de la grace 
et de la nature. Je commei^ais de concevoir quel 
que pen d espe" ranee, lorsque se tournant en furie 
vers moi, elle me prit au visage, avec tout 1 effort 
dont elle e"tait capable, et assure ment elle m eut 
peut-etre grievement bless6 si ses forces eussent 
e"gal6 sa fureur; mais elle 6tait si faible qu elle ne 
me pouvait faire le mal qu elle voulait. Sa faiblesse 
fut cause que, lui abandonnant mon visage, je con- 
tinuai mon instruction en lui disant que 1 inte ret que 
je portais a son atne m obligeait, quoi qu elle fit, de 
ne pas la quitter. Je fus cependant contraint de la 
laisser encore cette fois, meme dans la pense"e de n y 
plus retourner. Je ne laissai pas d y retourner le 
lendemain matin, plutot pour voir si elle e"tait morte 
que pour lui parler. Je la trouvai k I extr^mite, mais 
elle n avait pas encore perdu 1 esprit. H quoi! 
lui dis-je, tu n as plus qu un moment de vie, pour- 
quoi veux-tu te perdre pour tou jours, puisque tu 
peux encore te sauver? 

Ce peu de paroles amollit son cceur, que tant 
d autres n avaient pu e"branler. Elle se pencha vers 
moi, elle fit la priere que je lui sugge rais, te moigna 
de la douleur de ses peche s passes, demanda le bap- 
teme pour les effacer, et elle le re9Ut pour etre con- 
firm^e dans la grace par la mort qui suivit peu de 
temps apres. 

J ai appris, par 1 exemple de cette malade, que je 
ne dois jamais abandonner personne, quelque r6sis- 
tance qu elle puisse apporter pendant qu elle aura 
quelque reste de vie et de raison ; mon espe"rance et 
mon travail ne devant avoir de terme que 1 ou Dieu 
en met sa mise ricorde. 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 249- 

but, nevertheless, with bodily agitation which be 
trayed the workings of her mind, torn by the conflict 
ing efforts of grace and of nature. I began to have 
some slight hopes when, turning toward me in a 
fury, she seized my face with all her might. She 
would certainly have injured me seriously, had her 
strength been equal to her fury ; but she was so weak 
that she could not hurt me as she desired. On 
account of her weakness, I allowed her to retain her 
hold of my face, and I continued my instruction^ 
telling her that the interest I took in her soul com 
pelled me not to quit her, whatever she might do. 
I was, however, obliged to leave her that time, even 
with the idea of not returning. I nevertheless went 
back on the following morning, more for the 
purpose of seeing whether she were dead than of 
speaking to her. I found her at the point of 
death, but she had not yet lost consciousness. 
1 What! I said to her; thou hast but a moment 
to live; why wilt thou be lost forever, when thou 
canst yet be saved ? 

These few words softened her heart, which so- 
many others had been unable to touch. She leaned 
toward me ; she said the prayer that I prompted to 
her; she manifested sorrow for her past sins; she 
asked for baptism, to wash them away; and she 
received it only to be confirmed in grace by her 
death, which followed shortly afterward. 

1 I learned from the example of this sick woman 
that we should never give up any person, whatever 
may be his resistance, so long as any life or reason 
remains ; my hope and my labor shall have no other 
limit than that set by God s mercy." 




LES PP. Pierron, Raffeix et Gamier, qui travail- 
lent dans trois bourgades diffe"rentes, sont pour 
ainsi dire obliges de porter ton jours leurs ames entre 
leurs mains, car ils sont presque habituellement en 
danger d etre massacre s par ces barbares. 

Depuis, en effet, que les Sonnontouans ont entiere- 
ment defait les Andastogues, qui etaient leurs anciens 
et plus redoutables ennemis, leur insolence ne con- 
nait plus de bornes ; ils ne parlent que de renouveler 
la guerre contre nos allies et meme centre les Fran- 
cais, et de commencer par la destruction du fort de 
Catarokoui. II n y a pas longtemps qu ils avaient 
resolu de casser la tete au P. Gamier, le faisant 
passer pour sorcier. 

Celui qui devait faire le coup etait non-seulement 
de"signe, mais aussi paye pour cela; et nous n aurions 
plus ce missionnaire, si Dieu ne 1 eut conserve" par 
une providence bien singuliere. 

Toutes ces insolences n empechent pas les Peres 
de faire leurs fonctions tete leve*e, d instruire dans 
les cabanes et dans leurs chapelles, ou ils ont baptise" 
plus de cent personnes depuis un an ; et ils trouvent 
que cinquante, tant enfants qu adultes, meurent 
chaque annee, apres le bapteme. 

Cependant, si ces barbares prennent les armes 
contre nous, comme ils nous en menacent, nos Mis 
sions sont en grand danger d etre ou ruinees ou du 
moins interrompues pendant que cette guerre durera. 

1673-77] RELATION OF itr/s 251 



FATHERS Pierron, Raffeix, and Gamier, who labor 
in three different villages, are compelled, as it 
were, ever to bear their lives in their hands; for 
they are in almost continual danger of being 
murdered by those barbarians. 

In fact, since the Sonnontouans have utterly 
defeated the Andastogu6s, their ancient and most 
redoubtable foes, their insolence knows no bounds ; 
they talk of nothing but renewing the war against 
our allies, and even against the French, and of 
beginning by the destruction of fort Catarokoui. 
Not long ago, they had resolved to break Father 
Garnier s head, by making him pass for a sorcerer. 

He who was to strike the blow was not only desig 
nated, but was also paid for it; and we would no 
longer have had that missionary, had not God 
preserved him by a very special providence. 

All these insolent acts do not prevent the Fathers 
from performing their duties with heads erect; or 
from teaching in the cabins and in their chapels, 
wherein they have baptized over one hundred persons 
within a year; and they find that fifty, both children 
and adults, die each year after baptism. 

Nevertheless, if those barbarians take up arms 
against us, as they threaten to do, our Missions are 
in great danger of being either ruined or at least 
interrupted while the war lasts. 


Missions du Nord, chez les Montagnais, Mis- 

tassins, Papinachois, au Lac 

Saint Jean, etc. 

NOUS ne pouvons rien dire de la Mission de la 
baie d Hudson. Le P. Albanel est parti pour 
ce pays, il y a plus de deux ans, sans que nous 
ayons reu de lui aucune lettre depuis son depart. Les 
Sauvages de ces quartiers-lk en parlent diversement. 
Les uns nous assurent qu il est mort, et qu il est 
probable qu il aura 6t6 tue; les autres pre"tendent 
qu e"tant tombe" entre les mains des Anglais, ils lui 
ont fait repasser la mer. 

Ce que nous avons su de certain, c est qu il a eu 
assez de travaux et de miseres k endurer pour y user 
le peu de forces qui lui restaient et pour y laisser 
glorieusement la vie. 

Les Missions de Tadoussac, du lac Saint- Jean, des 
Mistassins et des Papinachois ont occupe" le P. de 
Crepieul pendant plus d un an, sans discontinuer une 
vie errante dans les bois avec les Sauvages, avec 
mille sortes d incomrnodites, soit pendant 1 hiver, soit 
pendant l e"te. Ces travaux et ces souffrances, qui ne 
lui donnaient pas de relache, 1 ont mis en tel etat 
qu il a 6t6 necessaire de lui faire prendre du repos, 
apres quatre rudes hivernements. En attendant, le 
P. Boucher est alle" prendre sa place. 

On peut dire que ces chretiente s vagabondes 
vivent dans une grande innocence lorsqu elles sont 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 253 

Missions in the North, among the Montagnais, 

Mistassins, Papinachois, at Lake Saint 

John, and elsewhere. 

WE cannot say anything about the Mission of 
Hudson bay. Father Albanel set out for 
that country over two years ago, and we 
have received no letter from him since his departure. 
The Savages of that quarter do not agree in their 
reports about him. Some assert that he is dead, and 
has probably been killed ; others state that he has 
fallen into the hands of the English, who have sent 
him across the sea. 

What we have positively learned is that he has 
had to endure enough labors and hardships to wear 
out the little strength remaining to him, and to 
gloriously end his life there. 

The Missions of Tadoussac and lake Saint John, and 
among the Mistassins and Papinachois, have kept 
Father de Cre"pieul occupied for over a year, without 
discontinuing his wandering life in the woods with 
the Savages, among a thousand discomforts, both in 
summer and in winter. These labors and suffer 
ings, which gave him no respite, have reduced him 
to such a condition that it has become necessary to 
make him take some rest after four arduous winter 
ings. Meanwhile, Father Boucher has gone to take 
his place. 49 

I may say that these wandering Christian com 
munities live very innocently while in the woods. 


dans les bois. Elles se sont augmentees depuis un 
an, non-seulement par le bapteme de cinquante-cinq 
personnes, mais encore par le credit que leur ont 
donne plusieurs chefs de quelques nouvelles nations, 
entre autres des Mistassins qui, nonobstant les mala 
dies dont Dieu les a affliges depuis leur bapteme, 
sont demeures fermes dans la foi, et en ont fait 
profession publique, mourant tres-bons Chretiens. 

Ces Sauvages ont une veneration particuliere pour 
les sacrements, et un si grand desir de les recevoir, 
que plusieurs sont venus expres trouver le Pere de 
dix a vingt lieues de loin, uniquement pour se con- 
fesser. Un, entre autres, a bien eu le courage d en- 
treprendre, pour ce sujet, un grand voyage, ayant 
fait seul en canot quarante lieues, parmi bien des 
dangers et avec beaucoup de fatigues, mais aussi 
avec tant de joie, qu il ne pouvait assez le faire 
paraitre en toutes rencontres ; un autre n eut pas moins 
de peine ni moins de consolations, quand, ayant 
traine sur les neiges son fils malade, pendant 1 espace 
de vingt-cinq lieues dans des chemins tres-difficiles, 
il le vit heureusement mourir entre les bras du Pere, 
sitot qu il lui cut administre les sacrements. 

1 673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 255 

They have been increased during the year, not only 
by the baptism of fifty-five persons, but also by the 
influence given to them by several chiefs, from some 
new nations. Among others are some from the 
Mistassins, who, notwithstanding the diseases where 
with God has afflicted them since their baptism, have 
remained steadfast in the faith, have made a public 
profession of it, and have died very good Christians. 
These Savages have a special veneration for the 
sacraments, and so great a desire to receive them 
that many have come expressly to the Father from 
distances of ten and twenty leagues, solely to confess 
themselves. One, among others, was brave enough, 
with that object, to undertake alone a long journey 
of forty leagues in a canoe, amid many dangers and 
fatigues, but also with such joy that he could not 
sufficiently manifest it on all occasions. Another 
had no less trouble, and no less consolation when, 
after hauling his sick son over the snow for a distance 
of twenty-five leagues in very bad roads, he saw him 
die happily in the arms of the Father, as soon as the 
latter had administered the sacraments to him. 


Mission des Iroquois de S.-Frangois-Xavier a 
la prairie de la Magdeleine pendant 
1 annee 

LES exemples de vertu que donne aux Francais 
cette Eglise sont si e"clatants et si connus, qu il 
n est pas necessaire d en parler, puisqu il n y a 
personne de ceux qui les voient qui n admire les 
effets de la grace en la personne de ces pauvres Sau- 
vages. Et, en effet, ces bons Chretiens, qui habitent 
la prairie de la Magdeleine, sont au milieu des feux 
ans bruler; je veux dire qu ils sont environnes de 
toutes parts d ivrogneries tres-scandaleuses, aux- 
quelles ils sont fortement sollicites, mais il se sont 
fait jusqu a present distinguer a Montreal et partout 
ailleurs, et Ton n a point d autres marques pour les 
faire reconnaitre, qu en disant que ce sont ceux qui 
ne boivent point et qui prient bien Dieu. On pourra 
juger plus particulierement de la vertu de ces fer- 
vents neophytes par le recit de la mort d un jeune 
Iroquois, qui s est endormi il y a peu de mois du 
sommeil des justes. Ce jeune homme, nomme Skan- 
degorhaksen, etait Agnie de nation, age d environ 
vingt ans, fort bien fait de corps, et d une humeur 
tres-douce, et qui semblait etre ne pour la vertu et 
pour la saintete". 

Des qu il eut mis le pied a la prairie de la Magde 
leine, il embrassa toutes les choses de la Foi et du 
culte divin avec tant de ferveur, qu il se fit inconti- 

1673-77] RELA TION OF 1673 257 

Iroquois Mission of St. Francois Xavier, at la 
prairie de la Magdeleine, dur 
ing the year 167^. 

THE examples of virtue given to the French by 
this Church are so striking and so well known 
that it is unnecessary to speak of them, for 
there is no one who witnesses them who does not 
admire the effects of grace in the persons of these 
poor Savages. And, in fact, these good Christians 
who dwell at la prairie de la Magdeleine are in the 
midst of fire without being burned: I mean, that 
they are surrounded on all sides by the most scan 
dalous drunkenness, to indulge in which they are 
earnestly solicited; but hitherto they have made 
themselves remarked at Montreal and everywhere 
else, and there is no other way of distinguishing 
them than by saying that they are the people who 
do not drink, and who pray to God aright. The 
virtue of these fervent neophytes may be better 
judged by an account of the death of a young Iro 
quois, who, for a few months, has slept the sleep 
of the just. This young man, whose name was 
Skandegorhaksen, was an Agni6 by birth, and about 
twenty years old ; he had a well-formed body and a 
very gentle nature, and seemed born solely for virtue 
and for sanctity. 

As soon as he set foot in la prairie de la Magde 
leine, he embraced all matters pertaining to the 
Faith and to divine worship, with such fervor that 


nent remarquer parmi tous les autres ; de sorte que 
le P. Fremin, qui a soin de cette Mission, en con9Ut 
des lors une si bonne opinion, qu au lieu qu il 6prou- 
vait les autres Sauvages des deux ou trois ans entiers 
avant que de leur confe"rer le saint bapteme, il le 
donna a celui-ci apres deux mois seulement d e"preuve. 
Des lors ce bon neophyte donna de plus en plus des 
marques de sa piete" et de sa ferveur, et quoique ce 
soit ici une louable coutume de nos Sauvages chre- 
tiens de venir assez souvent pendant le jour pour prier 
dans I dglise, Skandegorhaksen surpassait tous les 
autres en ces saints exercices, et avait ses temps 
regies comme un religieux. II y venait tous les 
matins a quatre heures; ensuite il assistait a deux 
messes. II retournait a la chapelle sur les dix heures ; 
il faisait de meme a une heure apres midi, puis a trois 
heures, et encore au soleil couchant, avec tous les 
Sauvages, et enfin entre les huit et neuf heures du 

Ce n est point exage ration de dire qu il priait dans 
l e*glise comme un ange, tant il etait modeste. A le 
voir seulement prendre de 1 eau be"nite en entrant et 
en sortant de la chapelle, et faire de profondes incli 
nations au Saint- Sacrement, on e"tait touch de deVo- 
tion. Des lors les Franais, qui ne savent pas les 
noms des Sauvages, le distinguaient des autres en 
disant ordinairement que c est ce jeune homme qui 
prie Dieu dans la chapelle avec tant de ferveur, et 
presque a toutes les heures du jour. II ne faisait 
pas paraitre moins de deVotion dans sa cabane. II 
y passait le temps a chanter les prieres sur le chant 
de 1 ^glise, et a dire tout haut le chapelet, a quoi il 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1673 259 

he at once made himself remarked among all the 
others. Accordingly, Father Fremin, who has 
charge of that Mission, then conceived so high an 
opinion of him that, while he tried the other Savages 
for two or three whole years before administering 
holy baptism to them, he administered it to this one 
after a trial of only two months. Thenceforward, 
that good neophyte gave increasing evidence of his 
piety and fervor; and, although it is a praiseworthy 
custom among our Christian Savages here to come 
quite often during the day to pray in the church, 
Skandegorhaksen surpassed all the others in these 
holy exercises, and had his stated hours, like a reli 
gious. He came every morning at four o clock, and 
then heard two masses. He returned to the chapel 
about ten o clock; he did the same an hour after 
noon, then at three o clock ; and came again at sunset, 
with all the Savages ; and, finally, between eight and 
nine in the evening. 

It is no exaggeration to say that he prayed in the 
church like an angel, so modest was he. Merely to 
see him take holy water on entering and on leaving 
the chapel, and make profound inclinations before 
the Blessed Sacrament, inspired one with devotion. 
The French, who know not the names of the Savages, 
generally distinguished him from the others by say 
ing that he was the young man who prayed to God 
in the chapel so fervently, and at all hours of the 
day. He manifested no less devotion in his cabin. 
He spent his whole time in chanting prayers to 
the airs of church hymns, and in saying the rosary 
aloud ; and he gently urged the other Savages of his 
age to do the same, when they came to visit him. 


engageait doucement les autres Sauvages de son age, 
quand ils le venaient visiter. 

Toutes ces choses etaient accompagne es d une 
innocence de vie, et d une tendresse de conscience 
admirable, et le Pere tient pour certain qu il est mort 
avec son innocence baptismale, qu il a conserved ici, 
deux ans durant, avec un soin et un courage hero- 
i ques. Car pendant tout ce temps, le diable lui a 
fait une guerre continuelle par de furieuses tenta- 
tions, mais il en est toujours demeure" victorieux, 
par la grace de Dieu, & laquelle il a correspondu 
de son cote" par sa ferveur ordinaire et par une 
merveilleuse crainte d offenser Dieu, et une grande 
horreur des moindres pe che s. Aussi se confessait-il 
pour cela tous les huit jours, et quelquesfois plus 

Des qu il arrivait ici de quelque voyage, il venait 
droit & la chapelle, et se confessait sur 1 heure, ou 
du moins le meme jour. II communiait avec des 
sentiments de deVotion et de ferveur, qu il faudrait 
avoir vus pour en juger capable un Sauvage de la 
nation d Agnie, qui a toujours e"te" estime e une 
des plus fieres et des plus eloignees du royaume de 

Mais comme la vertu, si elle est vraiment solide, 
ne se fait jamais mieux voir que dans les occasions, 
et que Ton pourrait peut-etre dire que la ferveur de 
cette Mission soutenait celle de Skandegorhaksen ; 
voyons-le au milieu des me chants, et au pays d ini- 
quite", faire triompher la vertu et la foi de Je*sus- 

Ce fut dans le pays des Iroquois, ofc il eut le cou 
rage d aller expres pour gagner Dieu un jeune 

1673 - 77] RELA TION OF 1675 261 

All these things were accompanied by an innocent 
life and an admirable tenderness of conscience ; and 
the Father is certain that he died in his baptismal 
innocence, which he preserved here during two 
years. This he did with heroic care and courage, 
for during all that time the devil waged continual 
war against him, by furious temptations; but he 
always remained victorious through God s grace, to 
which, on his part, he responded with his usual 
fervor, with a wonderful fear of offending God and 
a great horror of the slightest sins. To that end, 
therefore, he confessed himself every week, and 
sometimes oftener. 

As soon as he returned hither from a journey, he 
went directly to the chapel and confessed himself at 
once, or at least on the same day. He received 
communion with sentiments of devotion and fervor, 
which one must witness, before one can judge to 
what extent a Savage of the Agnie nation is cap 
able of them; for they have ever been considered 
the most arrogant, and the most remote from God s 

But inasmuch as virtue, if it be truly solid, never 
manifests itself except on occasion, and it might 
perhaps be said that the fervor of this Mission sus 
tained that of Skandegorhaksen, let us observe him 
in the midst of the wicked and in the land of iniquity, 
causing virtue and the faith of Jesus Christ to 

This was in the Iroquois country, whither he had 
the courage to go expressly to win to God a young 
man of his acquaintance. To his great regret, he 
found him plunged in every vice ; and this made him 
groan in his heart, all the more, because he could 


homme de sa connaissance. II le trouva & son grand 
regret plonge" dans les vices, ce qui le faisait ge"mir 
dans son coeur, d autant plus qu il n y pouvait pas 
apporter remede. II se re"sout done de reparer de 
son cote* les fautes de son ami, le mieux qu il put. 
Dans ce but, il se mit k faire 1 apotre au milieu de 
tous ces infideles. II chantait dans la chapelle les 
prieres qu il avait apprises ici. Cette nouveaute" y 
attirait tout le monde, et il en prenait alors occasion 
de les instruire. II allait hardiment dans les cabanes, 
et y prechait les mysteres de notre religion, et meme 
il reprenait partout les vices avec une e"tonnante 
liberte, et c est ce qui paraitra presque incroyable a 
ceux qui connaissent la fagon de faire des Sauvages, 
parmi lesquelles les jeunes gens ne parlent jamais 
en public, surtout en presence des anciens et des 

Apres qu il eut passe quelque temps dans ces exer- 
cices au milieu de 1 infidelite, il retourna ici, et nous 
reconnumes qu il etait toujours le meme, et qu il 
n avait rien perdu de son innocence dans ce pays si 
plein d abominations. 

C e"tait de"jk un fruit mur pour le ciel. Aussi nous 
fut-il ravi quelque temps apres son retour. Car 
etant alle" k la chasse, sur le commencement de 
1 hiver, dans la resolution ne"anmoins de 1 interrompre 
pour venir ce le brer ici la fete de Noel, il ne put 
pas contenter sa devotion, et des le premier jour 
de de"cembre 1675, il se sentit attaque" du mal qui 
1 emporta, le vingt-deuxieme du mois. 

Sitot qu il se vit en danger, il protesta qu il ne 
craignait point la mort, et qu au contraire, il espe*rait 
qu elle lui serait un passage a 1 e ternite bienheureuse, 

1673-77] RELA TION OF 1675 263 

not apply any remedy. He therefore resolved, for 
his own part, to make reparation as well as he could, 
for all his friend s faults. To that end he made him 
self an apostle in the midst of all these infidels. He 
chanted in the chapel the prayers that he had learned 
here. This novelty attracted thither all the people; 
and he then seized the opportunity to instruct them. 
He went boldly into the cabins, and preached therein 
the mysteries of our religion ; and he even reproved 
vice everywhere, with astonishing freedom. This 
will seem almost incredible to those who know the 
customs of the Savages, among whom the young 
men never speak in public, especially in the presence 
of the elders and the captives. 

After spending some time in these exercises in 
the midst of infidelity, he returned hither; and we 
found that he was ever the same, and had lost noth 
ing of his innocence in that land so full of abomina 

He was already a fruit ripe for heaven; conse 
quently he was taken away from us, some time after 
his return. For, having gone to hunt at the begin 
ning of winter, with the intention, however, of 
interrupting his hunt, to come and celebrate Christ 
mas here, he was unable to satisfy his devotion; 
and, as early as the first day of December, 1675, he 
felt himself attacked by the disease which carried 
him off on the twenty-second of the month. 

As soon as he saw himself in danger, he protested 
that he did not fear death ; and that, on the contrary, 
he hoped that it would be for him a passage to a 
blessed eternity ; for he ever said to those near him 
that he was going to enjoy the sight of God in 


disant toujours ceux qui etaient aupres de lui, qu il 
allait jouir de la vue de Dieu dans le paradis. 

Pendant sa maladie, il n a fait que dire son chape- 
let, s exercer dans les actes de douleur de ses peches, 
de foi, d esperance et de charite. II ne pensait qu a 
Dieu et ne parlait que de Dieu ; et, ce qui est mer- 
veilleux, c est que, tombant fort souvent dans le 
delire, pendant tout ce temps, il ne disait autre chose 
que son chapelet, et tous ses delices etaient de reciter 
YAve Maria, et d y meler quelques-uns des actes de 
vertus, marque infaillible de 1 habitude qu il en avait 
contracted. II n a temoigne qu un seul regret dans 
sa maladie, c etait de ne pas voir son bon Pere (ainsi 
appelait-il le P. Fre min), et de ne pas mourir entre 
ses bras; aussi l aimait-il, et il en etait aitn6 unique- 

Avant sa mort, etant encore en son bon sens, il 
exhorta ses parents qui 1 environnaient, de perseve"rer 
dans le service de Dieu, et les pria d exhorter aussi 
de sa part tous les Sauvages de la prairie de la Mag- 
deleine a etre constants dans la foi, et leur fit dire 
qu il allait devant eux au ciel, comme il I esp^rait, et 
qu il s attendait bien qu ils le suivraient tous. II les 
chargea aussi de payer de son petit meuble quelques 
dettes qu il avait contracted. Apres quoi il ne 
pensa plus qu au paradis, s entretenant doucement 
avec Dieu, auquel il rendit son ame tres-paisible- 
ment. La nouvelle de cette mort, ayant e"te apportee 
ici, remplit tous les esprits de tristesse, mais en 
meme temps d un certain sentiment de deVotion, que 
causait la memoire de sa vertu. 

Comme on a change ici les coutumes ridicules des 
Iroquois, touchant les meubles des defunts, ou qu on 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 265 

During his illness, he did nothing but recite his 
rosary and repeat acts of contrition for his sins, and 
of faith, hope, and charity. He thought and spoke 
only of God; and, wonderful to relate, when he 
frequently became delirious, during the whole of that 
time he repeated nothing else but his rosary; and 
his sole pleasure consisted in reciting the Ave Maria, 
and in adding to it some of the acts of virtue, an 
infallible sign of the habit he had contracted. He 
manifested but one regret in his illness ; this was at 
not seeing his good Father (thus he called Father 
Fre min), and at not dying in his arms; in truth, he 
loved and was greatly beloved by the Father. 

Before his death, while still in possession of his 
faculties, he exhorted his relatives, who surrounded 
him, to persevere in God s service; and he begged 
them also to exhort on his behalf all the Savages of 
la prairie de la Magdeleine to be constant in the 
faith. Moreover, he sent them word that he was 
going before them to heaven, as he hoped; and that 
he fully expected all of them to follow him. He 
also directed them to pay with his petty effects the 
few debts that he had contracted. After this, his 
thoughts were solely of paradise ; and he communed 
sweetly with God, to whom he gave up his soul very 
peacefully. When the news of his death was brought 
hither, it filled the minds of all with sorrow, but, at 
the same time, with a certain feeling of devotion 
caused by the recollection of his virtue. 

As we have changed here the ridiculous customs 
of the Iroquois respecting the effects of the dead, 
which were either buried with them, or devoted to 
superstitious purposes, as, I say, these have been 
changed into better usages by distributing the effects 


enterrait avec eux, ou dont on se servait supersti- 
tieusement; comme, dis-je, on les a change es en de 
meilleurs usages, distribuant les meubles en ceuvres 
pies et aux pauvres, on n a pas manqu6 de faire de 
meme en cette rencontre, mais avec une circonstance 
remarquable ; car tons les parents et les plus conside 
rables ayant convoque* tout ce bourg, comme en un 
conseil ge ne ral, pour faire cette distribution; ces 
bons Sauvages, touches par les rares exemples de 
vertu que le de"funt leur avait donne"s, parlerent de 
Dieu, du paradis et des choses de la foi, en des termes 
si hauls, si poe"tiques, si pleins de Dieu et d une 
certaine onction de pie te , que cela passe toute 
cre*ance. Le P. Fremin, ravi de ce qu il venait 
d entendre, dit en sortant qu il ne croyait pas qu il 
y cut au monde assemblee de religieux ou 1 on put 
parler plus dignement des choses de Dieu et de la Foi. 

Celui qui presidait, presentant k 1 assemblee un 
riche collier de porcelaine, fit un long discours. 
Commencant par les choses que le de"funt 1 avait 
charge" de leur dire de sa part, et, prenant en main 
ce beau collier: Voilk, leur dit-il, mes compagnons, 
la voix de notre defunt frere. Considerez-la bien, 
e"coutez-la bien. II pretend qu elle soit e"ternelle 
parmi vous, ou comme un reproche continuel de 
votre perfidie, si vous quittez la Foi, ou comme un 
gage pr6cieux qu il vous laisse de la recompense dont 
nous jouirons tous avec lui dans le paradis, si nous 
ob^issons k la voix de Dieu et & la sienne. 

Ensuite il prit sujet de s etendre sur les louanges 
de la Foi, sur le bonheur des Chretiens et sur la 
ferveur et la confiance avec laquelle il fallait servir 
Dieu. II dit des merveilles la-dessus, les faisant 

167S - 77] RELA TION OF 1673 267 

in pious works and to the poor, they did not fail to do 
the same on this occasion. But this was done with 
special solemnity ; for all the relatives and the most 
notable men assembled, as in a general council, to 
effect this distribution. Those good Savages, 
touched by the rare examples of virtue given them 
by the deceased, spoke of God, of paradise, and of 
matters pertaining to faith, in terms so high, so 
poetical, and so full of God and of a certain pious 
unction, that it surpasses all belief. Father Fre"min, 
delighted with what he had just heard, said on com 
ing therefrom that he did not think that there was 
in the world a meeting of religious whereat matters 
pertaining to God and to the Faith could be more 
worthily spoken of. 

He who presided presented to the assembly a rich 
porcelain collar, and delivered a long discourse. 
Beginning with the things that the deceased had 
directed him to say to them on his behalf, and hold 
ing this fine collar in his hand, he said to them : 
" Here, my companions, is the voice of our departed 
brother. Consider it well; listen well to it. He 
wishes that it may be eternal among you either as 
a continual reproach for your perfidy, should you 
abandon the Faith ; or as a precious pledge which he 
leaves you of the reward that we shall all enjoy with 
him in paradise, if we obey God s voice and his." 

He then took the opportunity to dwell at length 
upon the praises of the Faith, the happiness of Chris 
tians, and the fervor and constancy with which God 
should be served. He said wonderful things on the 
subject, especially reminding them of the rare devo 
tion and noble examples of all the virtues given 
them by him whose voice he bore to them, and who 


surtout souvenir de la rare devotion et des beaux 
exemples de toutes les vertus que leur avail donnes 
celui dont il leur portait la parole, et qui les regar- 
dait toujours du haut du ciel pour les animer , les 






LE vingtieme jour de mai, le R. P. Claude Dablon, 
supe"rieur de la Mission de la Compagnie de 
Jesus en la Nouvelle-France, e"tant ici & faire sa visite, 
nous apprimes que Mgr de Laval, premier eVeque de 
Quebec, n e*tait qu a trois lieues de Montreal, ou il 
devait faire son entree le lendemain. A cette nou- 
velle, le Pere superieur prit avec lui le P. Cholenec 
pour s en aller saluer Sa Grandeur. Us trouverent 
ce prelat apost clique avec le train et 1 equipage d un 
prince de la primitive Eglise. Ce grand homme 
pour sa naissance et encore plus pour ses vertus, qui 
ont fait tout re"cemment 1 admiration de la France, et 
qui, dans son dernier voyage en Europe, lui ont 
justement me rite 1 estime et 1 approbation du roi; ce 
grand homme, dis-je, faisant la visite en son diocese, 
e"tait mene" dans un petit canot d e"corce par deux 
pay sans, sans aucune suite que d un eccle"siastique 
seulement, et sans rien porter qu une crosse de bois r 
qu une mitre fort simple et que le reste des orne- 
ments absolument ne"cessaires & un e vtque cTor, comme 
le disent les auteurs, en parlant des premiers pre"lats 
du Christianisme. Comme il se trouvait dans ce 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6rs 269 

continually looked down upon them from heaven 
that he might urge them to follow him. 


ON the twentieth day of May, while Reverend 
Father Claude Dablon, superior of the Mis 
sions of the Society of Jesus in New France, was 
here on his visit, we learned that Monseigneur de 
Laval, the first bishop of Quebec, was only three 
leagues from Montreal, which he was to enter on the 
following day. Upon receiving this news, the 
Father superior took Father Cholenec 50 with him, 
to go to pay his respects to His Lordship. They 
found that apostolic prelate with the train and equi 
page of a prince of the primitive Church. This man, 
who is great by his birth, and still more by his 
virtues, which have recently made him the admira 
tion of France, and which on his last voyage to 
Europe justly won for him the king s esteem and ap 
proval, this great man, I say, while visiting his 
diocese was conveyed in a small bark canoe by two 
peasants, with no other suite than a single ecclesi 
astic. He had with him merely a wooden crozier, a 
very simple miter, and only such other ornaments 
as were absolutely necessary for a golden bishop, as 
the authors say when speaking of the first prelates of 
Christianity. As in this miserable canoe he was 
exposed to all the inclemency of the weather, he 
reached Montreal on the twenty-first day of the 


miserable canot expose" a toutes les injures de 1 air, 
il arriva a Montreal apres avoir recu toute la pluie 
qui fut excessive en ces quartiers, le vingt et unieme 
jour du mois. 

La fete de la Pentecote, qui e"tait proche, 1 obli- 
geant de s arreter dans cette ile pour la consolation 
des Fran9ais, dont plusieurs ne 1 avaient pas encore 
vu, il donna parole k nos Peres que, des le lundi 
suivant, 25 de mai, il irait visiter leur Mission de 
Saint-Xavier, k la prairie de la Magdeleine ; et il les 
pria de te"moigner aux Sauvages les tendresses de 
1 affection qu il avait pour eux. Cette nouvelle 
rejouit infiniment tout le bourg; et comme on a 
tou jours donne" a nos cate chumenes et a nos neophytes 
toute 1 estime due au caractere et au me rite d un si 
digne eVeque, on ne peut exprimer ni la joie que leur 
causa la seule espe"rance de le voir, ni la ferveur 
qu ils apporterent d eux-memes & disposer toutes 
choses pour le recevoir a leur maniere le mieux qu il 
leur serait possible. C est pourquoi, des le meme 
jour, ils commencerent a nettoyer et & aplanir les 
avenues, les rues et la place de leur village; ce qu ils 
continuerent encore le lendemain, veille de la Pente 
cote. Le lundi, qui en e"tait la deuxieme fete, ayant 
entendu la sainte messe, ils demanderent au P. 
Fre min, leur principal missionnaire la permission de 
travailler aux pre"paratifs qu ils n avaient pu faire 
plus tot. L ayant obtenue, ils allerent tous au bois 
et en rapporterent chacun leur charge de branchages 
dont ils formerent une all^e agrdable dans la grande 
place, qui est depuis leur chapelle jusqu au fleuve de 
Saint- Laurent. Au bout de cette alle"e, sur le bord 
de la riviere par ou Monseigneur devait arriver, ils 

1673-77] RELATION OF i^ 271 

month, after enduring all the rain, which was 
unusually heavy in that quarter. 

The approach of the festival of Pentecost com 
pelled him to stop on that island for the consolation 
of the French, many of whom had not yet seen him. 
He promised our Fathers that on the following Mon 
day, the 25th of May, he would go and visit their 
Mission of Saint Xavier at la prairie de la Magdeleine ; 
and he begged them to assure the Savages of the 
tenderness of his affection for them. This news 
caused great rejoicing in the village; and, as we 
have always impressed upon our catechumens and 
neophytes the esteem due to the character and merits 
of so worthy a bishop, it is impossible to express 
either the joy caused them by the mere hope of see 
ing him, or the ardor that they displayed, of their 
own accord, in preparing everything to give him the 
best reception in their power. Consequently, on 
the very same day, they began to clean and level the 
approaches, the streets, and the public place in 
their village ; and they continued this work on the 
following day, the eve of Pentecost. On Monday, 
which was the second day of the festival, after hear 
ing holy mass, they asked Father Fremin, their 
principal missionary, for permission to work at the 
preparations that they had been unable to make any 
earlier. Having obtained it, they all proceeded to 
the woods, whence each one brought back a load of 
branches; and with these they made a pleasant 
avenue in the public place, which extends from 
their chapel to the river Saint Lawrence. At the end 
of this avenue, on the bank of the river, where Mon- 
seigneur was to land, they placed a small platform 
raised about two feet above the water. In the 


avaient plac6 une petite estrade elevee sur 1 eau 
d environ deux pieds. Au milieu de la meme allee, 
ils avaient dresse un berceau, et Us I ornerent de diners 
feuillages affin que Monseigneur i euesque y pust receuoir 
leur premier compliment. Joignant r eschafaut ils 
ancient dispose" vne longue alle"e de branchages, par 
laquelle on pust alter a U ombre des feuilles depuis le bord 
de r eau Jusqua I eglise: an milieu de cette allee quiestoit 
de 2 ou joo pas estoit prepare vn Cabinet de verdure auec 
des sieges de gazon ou se deuoit faire le 2 d Compliment; et 
a la port e de I eglise ou ValUe se terminoit estoit encore vn 
autre berceau de feuillages ou Monseig r . deuoit estre 
harangue" po 9 la j* fois. 

Les choses estant ainsi disposes et tous les sauuages d"un 
coste auec leurs plus beaux ornements s estans range s sur 
le riuage et de V autre tous les francois qui habitent cette 
Coste en asses bon nombre on ne faisoit plus qu attendre la 
venue de Monseig r . / Euesque. 

II estoit a montreal ou il auoit faict son entree deux 
Jours auparauant, et le troisieme r apres midy il monta en 
canot po 9 trauerser Jusques icy ayant pres de deux lieues 
a faire par le chemin quil deuoit tenir. 

Pendant quil naiiige II est bon de remarquer en passant 
que I est f equipage de Ce grand prelat en faisant ses visit es 
II n auoit auec luy po 9 train quun esclesiastique et deux 
personnes po 9 conduire vn petit Canot d" e scarce dans lequel 
il estoit. C est vne voiture bien dangereuse quand on ri a 
pas des ho**, bien experts dans cette sorte de nauigation; et 
bien sujete a des incomodite"s puts qu on y est expose" a 
toutes les injures de r air et de fait le Jour quil arriua a 
montreal [ilfut expose a] il receut sur luy vne grosse pluye 
\quil receut sur luy] pendant plus de j lieues. 

Par bonheur le temps estoit fort beau le Jour qu il 
choisit po 9 nous honorer de sa visite. Sur les j heures du 

1673-77] RELATION OF 1675 273 

middle of the same avenue, they erected a bower, 
and ornamented it with various kinds of foliage, in order 
that Monseigneur the bishop might there receive their first 
congratulatory address. Beginning at the platform, they 
had prepared a long arbor of green boughs, by which one 
could go under the leafy shade from the water s edge To 
the church. At the middle of this arbor, which zvas 2 or 
joo paces in length, a Bower of verdure was erected, 
having seats of turf, in which was to be offered the 2nd 
Congratulation; and at the door of the church, where the 
walk ended, there was still another green bower, in which 
Monseigneur was to be addressed for the ^rd time. 

Their preparations being thus made, and all being 
ranged along the river -bank, on one side all the savages, 
decked out with their gaudiest ornaments; and on the 
other all the frenchmen, who live on this Cote in a goodly 
number, it only remained to await the coming of Mon 
seigneur the Bishop. 

He was at montreal, where he had made his entry 
two Days before; in the afternoon of the third day, he 
embarked in a canoe to cross over Hither, having nearly 
two leagues to cover by the route that he was to take. 

While he is voyaging, It will be well to observe, in 
passing, what retinue This great prelate has, when making 
his visits. He had, in his train, only one ecclesiastic, and 
two persons to manage a small bark Canoe in which he sat. 
It is a very dangerous conveyance when one has not men 
very expert in that kind of navigation; and it may be very 
uncomfortable, since one is exposed in it to all inclemencies 
of the weather. In fact, on the Day when he arrived at 
montreal, tfare fell upon him [he was exposed to] a heavy 
shower \whichfell upon him] for more than j leagues. 

Happily, the weather was very fine on the Day which 
he selected for honoring us ivith his visit. At j o* clock in 


soir on vit paroistre de loin son Canot sur vn espece de lac 

que faict la riuiere qui s eslargit beaucoup en cet endroit 

la. nostre p. superieur qui estoit alors icy s* embarqua 

aussi tost po 9 aller a la rencontre de sa grandeur, et le 

salua a un petit quart de lieue loing du bord de V eau 

La cloche de 1 eglise commengant en meme temps de 

sonner, chacun accourut ou Monseigneur devait 

debarquer. Le P. Fremin se mit sur la droite, a la 

tete de tons ses Sauvages, et le P. Cholenec prit la 

gauche, ayant avec soi tous les Frangais. quand le 

Canot de Monseig r fut a la porte"e de la voix; Le Capitaine 

des hurons auec les anciens de la mesme nation s est ant 

place s sur V eschafaut dont no 9 auons par It, cria tout haut, 

Euesque arrest e ton Canot t et escoute ce que J ay a te dire. 

on auoit prit Monseig r . / euesque de souffrir que nos 

sauuages vsassent des leurs ceremonies ord res . quand Us 

font des receptions, et s 1 est ant faict expliquer ce compliment 

il prit plaisir a cette naiuete", et s arresta volontiers pour 

escouter ces deux orateurs qui le haranguerent I un apres 

V autre en I asseurant de leur Joye et de [leur respecf\ 

Vesper ence quils auoient que sa presence les combleroit des 

benedictions du del, en le loiiant de son esprit de sa vertu, 

et de sa dignitt qui V esleuoit tant au dessus des autres 

maistres de la foy, et de la priere, et en Vinuitant de 

prendre terre ch/s eux; qu Us le conduiroient dabord dans 

la maison du grand maistre de nos vies. Monseigneur 

mit alors pied a terre, et s 1 est ant reuestu de son Camail et 

de son rochet, il donna sa benediction a tout le monde qui 

estoient a genoux. Le p. fremin entonna aussitost le vent 

creator en langue Iroquoise, et fut second^ de tous ses 

sauuages ho es . etfemmes selon leur coustume, Us le suiuirent 

aussi dans V espece de prossession qu il Commanca le long 

de I alle e qui auoit este" faicte po 9 ce sujet. Monseig r . 

1673-77] RELATION OF ifyjs 27-> 

the afternoon his Canoe came in sight, far away, on a sort 
of lake formed by the river, which at that place becomes 
much wider. Our father superior, who was then here, 
immediately embarked to go to meet his lordship, and 
greeted him at hardly a quarter of a league from the shore. 
At the same time, the church-bell began to sound, 
and every one hastened to the place where Monsei 
gneur would land. Father Fre"min stood on the right , 
at the head of all his Savages ; and Father Cholenec 
took the left, and with him all the French people. 
When Monseigneur s Canoe was within speaking distance, 
The Captain of the hurons, who had taken his place with 
the elders of the same nation on the platform which we 
have mentioned, called out in a loud voice: "Bishop, 
stop thy Canoe, and hear what I have to say to thee! 
Monseigneur the bishop had been asked to permit that our 
savages should practice the ceremonies usual with them 
when they give receptions; and having had this compliment 
explained to him, he enjoyed their naive greeting. Accord 
ingly, he readily halted to listen to these two orators, who 
harangued him in turn, assuring him of their Joy, and 
[their respect] the hope entertained by them that his 
presence would crown them with the blessings of Heaven. 
They praised his intellect, virtue, and dignity, which 
exalted him so high above other masters of the faith and 
the prayer; and invited him to come ashore among them, 
that they might conduct him at once to the house of the 
great master of our lives. Monseigneur then landed; and, 
having robed himself in his Camail and rochet, he gave 
his blessing to all the people, who remained upon their 
knees. Father fremin immediately intoned the "veni 
creator in the Iroquois tongue, and was assisted by all 
the savages, men and women, as is their custom. They 
accompanied him also in a sort of procession, which he 


marchoit apres eux suiui de tous les francois qui chanterent 
en latin le veni creator alternatiuement auec les sauuages 
on arriua en cet ordre au i r berceau soubs lequel Monseig". 
s estant arrest 2, vn capitaine des onont ague s, et vn ancien 
d onneiout le haranguerent au nom de toutes les $ nations 
Iroquoises. apres quoy on s* aduanca J usque s au 2 d . berceau 
soubs lequel sa grandeur fut harangue e po 9 la j e fois par 
nostre feruent [dogique] catechiste nomme paul qui estant 
acoutumt a parler souuent en public po 9 Instruire ses freres 
fit icy son compliment auec vne force d esprit, vne piete", et 
vne eloquence incroyable dans vn sauuage. Estant done 
monte sur vn tronc d arbre qui luy seruoit de Chaire il 
osta son chapeau fit le signe de la Croix et esleuant ses 
yeux auec sa voix au del il remercie Dieu de la grace quil 
leur faisoit de leur enuoyer le s f . Euesque son lieutenent et 
demanda encore celle de profiter de sa visite. En suite 
s adressant a sa grandeur, il la loua de son Zele et de sa 
Charite" po 9 les antes en luy rendent mille actions de graces 
po 9 ses soings egalement estendus sur les francois et sur les 
pauures sauuages. ce discours fini Monseigneur entra 
dans I* eglise ou le p cholenec en surplis luy presenta I eau 
benite, et fit apres le salut du s* sacrement, ou les francois 
et les sauuages chanterent encore a deux chceurs le pange 
lingua r aue" marts stella, et le domine saluum fac regem; 
apres quoy les sauuages seuls ho" etfemmes alternatiuement 
chanterent vn second motet du S l sacrement. 

Le salut acheve" Monseigneur estant entre" en nostre 
maison coe il vit que les sauuages le suiuoient il fit entrer 
les ho** . leur donnent a tous sa main a baiser, et leur 
faisant pleusieurs caresses, nommement a ceux quon luy 
disoient estre les plus feruents. Estant passe" dans vne 
autre chambre il permit aux femmes d"y entrer po 9 loiier 
leur piett a proportion du bien qu on luy disoit de chascune 

1673-77] RELATION OF 

Headed, along the shaded ivalk which had been made for 
that purpose. Monseigneur walked after them, followed 
by all the frenchmen, who chanted in latin the "veni 
creator " alternately with the savages. In this order the 
ist bower was reached, under which Monseigneur halted, 
and a captain of the onont ague s and an elder from onneiout 
addressed him, in the name of all the 5 Iroquois nations. 
After that, they proceeded To the 2nd bower, under which 
his lordship was addressed, for the jrd time, by our devout 
[dogique] cat ec hist, named paul, who, being accustomed 
to speak often in public, when Instructing his brethren, 
now offered his congratulations with a spirit, piety, and 
eloquence surprising in a savage. Having mounted upon 
the stump of a tree, which served him as a Rostrum, he 
took off his hat and made the sign of the Cross. Then, 
lifting his eyes and his voice toward heaven, he thanked 
God for the favor that he had granted them in sending 
them the holy Bishop, his representative; and prayed, 
further, for the grace of profiting by his visit. After 
ward, addressing his lordship, he praised him for his Zeal 
and his Charity for souls, returning him a thousand thanks 
for his watchful care, extended equally to the french and 
the poor savages. This address ended, Monseigneur 
entered the church, where father cholenec, in surplice, 
presented to him holy water and gave the benediction of 
the blessed sacrament. At that ceremony the french and 
the savages chanted again, in two choirs, the "pange 
lingua," " a ve maris stella," and " domine salvum fac 
regem," after which the savages alone, men and women 
alternately, sang a second motet of the Blessed sacrament. 
The benediction ended, Monseigneur came into our house. 
Perceiving that the savages were following him, he made 
the men come in and gave to all of them his hand to kiss, 
bestowing upon them many tokens of regard, especially on 


d elles. En fin il les conge dia en leur donnant a tous 
sa benediction. Des Iroquois infideles, arrives depuis 
peu de leur pays, et qui ne respiraient que la guerre 
et la fierte", la recurent aussi en rendant a Sa Gran 
deur tous les memes devoirs et toutes les memes 
soumissions que nos chr6tiens, comme si la presence 
d un si bon pasteur eut change ces cruels loups en 
de doux agneaux. 

Le lendemain qui estoit la j e feste de la pentecoste fut 
veritablement Jour de descente du S*. esprit sur cette mis 
sion par le grace des sacrements que Monseig r . y confera 
auec toute la Joye et la bonte 1 possible, et que nos sauuages 
receurent auec vne modestie et vne deuotion admirable. II 
commenca des le grand matin par le baptesme de dix adultes 
4. ho", et six femmes, il continua par j mariages qiiil fit; 
apres quoy il dit la s te . messe pendant laquelle nos sauuages 
chanter ent et communierent po 9 la plus part de sa main. 
II leur donna encore la Confirmation en permetant aussy 
aux francois qui ne V auoient pas receue de se Joindre aux 
sauuages. pour lesquels seuls il e"tait venu, a ce qu il 
assure. Le pere fremin leur repeta en sauuage le sermon 
que sa grandeur leur fit en nostre langue. 

La matine e s estant ainsi passe e on fit en son nom vn 
festin a tous nos sauuages dans la cabane du Dogique 
vne grande Cabane. coe Us sceurent que sa grandeur y 
deuoit assister Us preparerent pour luy et pour sa suite des 
places quils ornerent de tout ce qu ils auoient de plus beau. 
Le festin que fut plus long en harangues en chans et en 
ceremonies semblables qu a manger estant acheue , Mon- 
seigneur ne se Contentant pas de cette faueur faite a tous 
en g** 1 , voulut encore par vn exe"s de sa bonte" et de sa 
Condescendence ord re . visit er chasque famille et chaque 
particulier en sa Cabane propre; dequoy nos sauuages ne se 

1673- 77] RELA TION OF 1673 279 

those who, as he was informed, were the most devout. 
Having gone into another room, he gave permission to the 
women to come in, in order that he might praise their piety 
in proportion to the good that was reported to him respecting 
each of them. At length he dismissed them, bestowing 
upon them all his blessing. It was also received by 
some infidel Iroquois, who had recently arrived from 
their own country, and who breathed only war and 
arrogance ; for they paid all respect and submission 
to His Lordship, the same as our Christians gave, 
as if the presence of so good a pastor had changed 
those cruel wolves into gentle lambs. 

The morrow, which was whitsun-tuesday, was truly a 
Day of the descent of the Holy ghost upon this mission, 
through the grace of the sacraments which Monseigneur 
most Gladly and kindly bestowed upon it, and which our 
savages received with admirable modesty and devotion. 
He commenced, in the early morning, with the baptism of 
ten adults, 4. men and six women, following this up 
with 3 marriages, at which he himself officiated. After 
that, he said holy mass, during which our savages chanted 
and received communion, in most cases, from his own 
hand. He further gave them Confirmation, permitting 
also the french who had not received it to Join the 
savages for whose sake alone, he asserted, he had 
come. Father fremin repeated to them, in the savage 
tongue, the sermon which his lordship preached to them 
in our own. 

The morning having thus passed, there was given in 
his name a feast to all our savages in the Dogique s 
a large Cabin. As they knew that his lordship was to be 
present thereat, they prepared for him and for his suite 
places, which they decked out with all the most beautiful 
articles which they possessed. The feast, which was 


furent pas plustost aperscus que po 9 reconnoistre vne 
faueur si grande Us ornerent leurs Cabanes de tout ce 
qu Us auoient de plus pretieux dans leurs petits magasins. 
preparant line place pour y faire asseoir Sa Grandeur, 
et etendant a terre, les uns des branchages, les autres 
des nattes bien travaille"es, d autres de belles peaux, 
d autres des couvertures de ratine et de semblables 
etoffes. Netoyant les rues par ou il deuoit passer, et les 
embellissant autant quils le pouuoient, Monseig r . fut 
bien content et edifit de tons ces sinceres temoignages 
d affection et de respect, et quoy quil se fit tart lors qu il 
eut visits tout le monde, I ardeur que montrerent quelques 
par ens a luy faire baptiser leurs enfans fut Cause que no 9 
luy en presentasmes sept ausquels il Con/era tout aussi 
tost ce Sacrem*. apres quoy il assist a au salut qui se fit coe 
le Jour precedent le lendemain matin ay ant encore voulu 
dire la messe de nos sauuages qui y chanterent tres bien a 
leur ord re . il reprit le chemin de montreal tout le monde 
r acompagnant Jusques a la riuiere coe Von auoit faict a 
son arriue e. lors qu il fut prest d 1 entrer dans son Canot, 
on se mit a genoux po 9 receuoir sa benediction quil donna 
tncore a toute V assemble qui le suiuit tant qu elle put des 
yeux, et dont il emporta tous les Cceurs, en luy laissant le 

Nous eusmes loisir d 1 entretenir Monseig r . V Euesque 
pendant quil fut icy de quelques vns de nos sauuages dont 
la vertu esclatoit dauantage, outre la satisfaction quil 
lesmoigna auoir de tout le qu il auoit veu, et du bon estat 
ou il trouuoit cette mission; II prit sur tout plaisir au recit 
que nous luy fismes de la pretieuse mort d un June Iroquois 

Une des choses par cm ce saint Prelat et sa suite 
remarquerent mieux la solide vertu des Sauvages de 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6n 281 

protracted, rather by addresses, songs, and similar 
ceremonies than by eating, being over, Monseigneur, not 
Contenting himself with this favor granted to all in 
general, was further pleased, by an excess of his goodness 
and of his usual Condescension, to visit each family, and 
each individual in his own Cabin, Our savages no sooner 
perceived this than, in order to show their gratitude for a 
favor so great, they decorated their Cabins with all that 
was most precious in their scanty stores, making ready 
a place wherein to seat His Lordship, and spreading 
upon the ground, in some places, branches of trees, 
in others, handsomely worked mats ; some laid down 
rich furs, others blankets of ratine and of similar 
stuffs. They Cleaned the thoroughfares through which 
he was to pass and beautified them to the utmost of their 
ability. Monseigneur was greatly pleased and edified at 
all these sincere tributes of affection and respect; and, 
although it was late by the time he had visited all the 
people, the zeal which some parents showed to have him 
baptize their children Resulted in our presenting to him 
seven of these, on whom he immediately Conferred that 
Sacrament. He then assisted at benediction, which took 
place as on the preceding Day. On the following morning, 
having again been pleased to say mass for our savages, who 
sang at it very well, as they usually do, he set out on his 
return to montreal, all bearing him company as Far as the 
river, as had been done on his arrival. When he was on 
the point of stepping into his Canoe, they knelt down t& 
receive his benediction, which he again bestowed upon all 
assembled, who followed him with their eyes as far as they 
could see. He carried away all their Hearts, while 
leaving them his own. 

We had leisure for conversing with Monseigneur the 
Bishop, while he was here, concerning some of our savages. 


cette Mission, et qtd les ravit davantage, fut que la 
joie de toute cette fete ne fut point troublee par la 
plus funeste nouvelle qui put arriver pour ce bourg. 
Comme depuis quelque temps on e"tait en peine d une 
bande de chasseurs entre lesquels e"tait le capitaine 
des Agnies, un des plus considerables de tous les 
Iroquois, et qui de plus est un tres-excellent chretien, 
le mardi au matin, comme on e"tait pret de dire la 
messe, un Sauvage arriva de Quebec, qui assura, 
qu en passant par les Trois- Rivieres, il avait apprit 
des Sauvages-Loups que d autres de leur nation 
auraient tu6 les chasseurs dont on 6tait en peine a la 

Quoique cette nouvelle se soit dans la suite trouve"e 
fausse, grace a Dieu, cependant elle fut crue de tout 
le monde pour veritable ; et ainsi, suivant la coutume 
des Sauvages, dans de pareilles occasions, tous les 
parents de ceux dont on avait annonce" la mort 
devaient se tenir renferme s chez eux sans paraitre a 
aucune action publique, si est-ce que non-seulement 
ils assisterent tous au divin service, auquel ils recurent 
le sacrement de penitence, d eucharistie et de confir 
mation, mais encore la femme de ce capitaine, toute 
abime*e dans la douleur, ajouta a toutes ses devotions 
celle de presenter a la messe le pain be"nit qu elle 
devait donner ce jour-la, et fit ensuite la quete par 
l e"glise avec toutes les civility s d une dame fran^aise, 
et avec une modestie, une force d esprit et une resi 
gnation aux ordres de Dieu, infiniment plus grande. 
Monseigneur I eVeque ayant appris apres la messe ce 
qui e"tait arrive", et ayant 6te" informe de la parfaite 
amide" que cette femme forte avait pour son mari, 
loua hautement sa vertu, et lui te"moigna, par tout ce 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6js 283 

whose virtue shone with more than ordinary luster. 
Besides the satisfaction which, he assured us, he had felt 
at all that he had seen, and at the good condition in which 
he found this mission, He took an especial pleasure in the 
narration which we gave him of the precious death of a 
Young Iroquois Christian. 

One of the things which enabled that holy Prelate 
and his suite better to observe the solid virtue of the 
Savages of this Mission, and which delighted them 
most, was that the joy of all this feast was not dis 
turbed by the saddest news that could come to this 
village. Anxiety had been felt, for some time, for 
a band of hunters, among whom was the captain of 
the Agnie"s, one of the most noted of all the Iroquois 
and, moreover, an excellent Christian. On Tuesday 
morning, as mass was about to begin, a Savage 
arrived from Quebec, who stated that when he passed 
through Three Rivers he had learned, from some 
Loup Savages, that others of their tribe had killed 
the hunters about whom the people of la Prairie 
were anxious. 

Although in the sequel this news, thanks be to 
God, turned out to be false, it was nevertheless be 
lieved by all to be true ; and thus, according to the 
custom of the Savages on similar occasions, all the 
relatives of those whose death had been announced 
should have remained shut up in their houses, with 
out making their appearance on any public occasion. 
Nevertheless they not only all attended divine 
service at which they received the sacraments of 
penance, the eucharist, and confirmation; but even 
the wife of that captain, afflicted as she was, added 
to all her devotions that of offering at mass the 
blessed bread, which she had to give on that day. 


qu il put, la part qu il prenait a sa perte et a celle 
des Iroquois qui croyaient leurs gens morts; ainsi, 
tout le stratageme qu il semblait que le d&mon 
n avait invente que pour jeter le desordre dans les 
esprits, et pour empecher les fruits de la visite de 
Monseigneur 1 Eveque, ne servit qu a faire 6clater 
davantage la vertu de nos nouveaux Chretiens et qu a 
augmenter la juste estime ou est cette Mission. 

M. 1 intendant n en a pas congu moins d opinion 
dans la visite qu il y fit peu apres. Get illustre mi- 
nistre de Sa Majeste", dont 1 arrivee a 6t6 si heureuse 
a la Nouvelle-France, et qui, par sa piete", sa douceur, 
son intdgrite, son ardeur d obliger tout le monde, et 
son application aux affaires, remplit si dignement 
toutes les charges, arriva dans la ville de Montreal un 
samedi au soir, 20 juin ; il prit aussitot jour pour venir 
visiter nos Sauvages a la Prairie, ou il se rendit en 
effet le samedi suivant, accompagne" de M. Dam- 
brant, son fils aine, de M. Perrot, gouverneur de 
Montreal, et de plus de cinquante personnes des plus 
considerables du pays, entre lesquelles e"tait M. le 
cure de Montreal. 

Comme nos Sauvages ont 1 obligation a ce digne 
intendant d une belle terre d une lieue et demie qu il 
leur a accordee, parce que celle de la Prairie etant 
dans un fond, n est pas propre pour le ble" d Inde, ce 
leur fut une indicible joie de le voir arriver sur le 
soir par un tres-beau temps et avec une suite de 
douze ou quinze canots. II n eut pas, lui-meme, 
moins de joie de voir sur le rivage un si grand 
nombre de Sauvages chre"tiens, qui taient venus au- 
devant de lui, et dont il connaissait la foi et la pi6t6 
par la reputation qu ils se sont justement acquise. 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6fj 285 

Afterward, she took up the collection in the church, 
with all the good breeding of a French lady, with 
infinitely greater modesty and self-possession, and 
resignation to God s will. After mass, when Mon- 
seigneur the bishop learned what had happened, and 
was informed of the perfect love which that brave 
woman had for her husband, he highly praised her 
virtue, and showed by every means in his power the 
regret that he felt for her loss, and for that of the 
Iroquois who believed their people to be dead. Thus 
the whole stratagem which the devil seemed to have 
invented solely to disturb the minds of the savages, 
and to prevent the good results of Monseigneur the 
Bishop s visit, served but to make the virtue of our 
new Christians shine more brightly, and to increase 
the esteem in which this Mission is justly held. 

Monsieur the intendant conceived no less an 
opinion of it during a visit which he paid there 
shortly afterward. That illustrious minister of His 
Majesty, whose coming has been so fortunate for 
New France and who, by his piety, his kindness, 
his integrity, his anxiety to oblige every one, and 
his application to business, so worthily fills all his 
offices, arrived in the town of Montreal on the even 
ing of Saturday, June 20. He at once appointed a 
day to visit our Savages at la Prairie, whither, in 
fact, he proceeded on the following Saturday, accom 
panied by Monsieur Dambrant, his eldest son ; Mon 
sieur Perrot, governor of Montreal; and over fifty 
of the most notable persons of the country, among 
whom was Monsieur the cur6 of Montreal. 

As our Savages are under obligation to that worthy 
intendant for a fine piece of land, a league and a 
half in extent, 51 which he granted them because that 


Apres 1 avoir salue, selon leur coutume, nos Peres 
et eux le conduisirent & 1 eglise, ou il fit ses prieres 
devant le Saint-Sacrement. Ensuite, pour montrer 
aux Sauvages qu il e"tait venu pour eux, il alia a leur 
village, qui etait un peu eloigne de la chapelle, et 
ayant passe quelque temps dans les cabanes & donner 
mille marques de son amitie et de sa vertu, il retour- 
na & 1 eglise, d ou on alia processionnellement au 
bucher prepare* pour la fete de Saint- Jean, qui tombait 
le lendemain. 

Le P. Fremin marchait k la tete des Sauvages, 
puis le porte-croix avec deux enfants en surplis qui 
portaient les chandeliers, apres lesquels marchait le 
P. Cholenec qui servait de diacre & M. le cure" de 
Montreal, que Ton avait prie d omcier; M. 1 inten- 
dant suivait, et avait apres lui M. le gouverneur de 
Montreal et un grand nombre de Frangais ; sur les 
deux cote s de cette longue procession s e"tait rangee 
en haie et en armes, la jeunesse Sauvage a la gauche, 
et la fran9aise & la droite, ayant a sa tete le fils de 
M. 1 intendant. Us firent tous plusieurs decharges, 
a 1 instant ou M. 1 intendant eut commence" de mettre 
le feu au bucher et ou 1 officiant eut entonne" le chant 
ordinaire ; ce chant fut continue par les Frangais et 
les Sauvages qui chantaient en deux choeurs, ceux-ci 
en latin et ceux-lk en iroquois. Si M. 1 intendant 
temoigna apres cette cere"monie qu il avait e"te ravi 
du chant et principalement de la devotion de nos 
Sauvages qui avaient assiste" k cette procession en 
silence et priere, nos Sauvages ne furent pas moins 
6difies de 1 y avoir vu toujours nu-tete, son chapelet 
la main, et avec les marques de cette haute piete" dont 
il fait une profession exemplaire. II nous en donna 

1673-77] RELATION OF i675 287 

of la Prairie, being in low ground, is not suitable 
for raising Indian corn, they were delighted beyond 
expression to see him arrive in the evening, in very 
fine weather, followed by twelve or fifteen canoes. 
He himself felt no less joy at seeing on the beach so 
great a number of Christian Savages, who had come to 
meet him, and whose faith and piety he knew by the 
reputation which they have so deservedly acquired. 
After saluting him according to their custom, our 
Fathers and they led him to the church where he 
said his prayers before the Blessed Sacrament. 
Then, to show the Savages that he had come on their 
account, he went to their village, which lies a short 
distance from the chapel; and, after passing some 
time in the cabins, giving a thousand proofs of his 
friendship and his virtue, he returned to the church. 
Thence all walked in procession to the bonfire 
prepared for the feast of Saint John, which fell on 
the following day. 52 

Father Fremin marched at the head of the Savages ; 
then came the cross-bearer, with two boys in sur 
plices carrying candlesticks. After them walked 
Father Cholenec, acting as deacon to Monsieur the 
cure of Montreal, whom we had asked to officiate. 
Monsieur the intendant came next, followed by Mon 
sieur the governor of Montreal and a large number 
of Frenchmen. On both sides of this long procession 
the youth were marshaled in two files, and under 
arms, on the left the young Savages, and on the 
right the young French, with the son of Monsieur 
the intendant at their head. They fired several 
volleys at the moment when Monsieur the intendant 
began to light the bonfire, and when the officiant 
intoned the usual chant. This chant was continued 


encore de nouvelles preuves, soit par le pen qu il 
prit pour la collation de ce jour-la, qui 6tait la vigile 
de Saint- Jean, soit le lendemain par la devotion qu il 
fit paraitre en entendant la messe, et en recevant 
les sacrements de penitence et d eucharistie. Comme, 
pendant tout ce temps, nos Sauvages chanterent en 
leur langue, alternativement les hommes d un cot6 
et les femmes de 1 autre, il temoigna que leur chant 
lui avait donne" bien de la devotion et de la joie de 
voir Dieu loue et servi par des gens qui vivaient, il y 
a peu d anne"es, plutot en betes qu en hommes. 

Avant le diner, il tint chez nous un conseil general 
de tous les Sauvages qui 6taient a la Prairie, savoir 
des cinq nations iroquoises, des Hurons et des Loups ; 
leur ayant par son interprete donne de grandes 
louanges de leur zele et de leur fidelite" pour le culte 
de Dieu et pour le service du roi, il les exhorta de 
continuer et leur promit tout ce qui pourrait dependre 
de sa personne ; il accompagna son discours de beaux 
presents pour ces peuples, au nom desquels il fut 
remerci6 par le capitaine de la Prairie. En se met- 
tant a table, il fit asseoir a ses cote s nos capitaines, 
but a leur sante et voulut qu ils bussent a la sienne, 
ne pouvant se lasser de leur temoigner son affection. 
C est pourquoi, apres son diner, il fit faire un festin 
a tout le village dans la plus grande de toutes les 
cabanes, ou il eut la bonte de demeurer plus de deux 
heures pour assister a toutes leurs ceremonies, quoi 
qu il fit un chaud insupportable. Au sortir de la, on 
lui presenta un petit Sauvage de six a sept ans pour 
le tenir sur les fonts de bapteme, ce qu il fit en le 
nommant Fran9ois-Xavier, a cause de la deVotion 
qu il a pour ce grand patron de notre Mission. 

1673-77] RELATION OF i6is 289 

by the French and Savages, who sang alternately, 
the former in Latin, and the latter in Iroquois. If 
Monsieur the intendant after the ceremony showed 
that he was charmed with the singing and, above all, 
with the devotion of our Savages, who had assisted 
at the procession silently and in prayer, our Savages 
were no less edified at seeing him in it bareheaded, 
his rosary in his hand, and with evidences of that 
profound piety which he professes in so exemplary a 
manner. He gave us still further proofs of it, both 
by the little that he ate at collation on that day, which 
was the vigil of the feast of Saint John ; and, on the 
following day, by the devotion with which he heard 
mass,, and received the sacraments of penance and 
the eucharist. As during all that time our Savages 
sang in their language alternately, the men on one 
side, and the women on the other, he declared that 
their singing had inspired him with much devotion, 
and with joy at seeing God praised and served by 
people who, a few years previously, lived more like 
animals than like men. 

Before dinner, he held at our house a general 
council of all the Savages at la Prairie namely, 
those of the five Iroquois nations, the Hurons, and 
the Loups. Having, through his interpreter, given 
them great praise for their zeal and fidelity in wor 
shiping God and serving the king, he exhorted 
them to continue, and promised them to do for them 
whatever he personally could. He accompanied his 
discourse by fine presents for those tribes, in whose 
name he was thanked by the captain of la Prairie. 
On sitting down to table, he made our captains sit 
beside him ; he drank their health and wished them 
to drink his, and could not sufficiently manifest his 


Apres nous avoir donne toutes ces marques, et 
plusieurs autres encore de sa solide pie"te" et de sa 
cordiale affection, il s en retourna & Montreal avec 
toute sa suite, pendant que tous nos pauvres Sau- 
vages, 1 ayant reconduit jusqu a la riviere, 1 accom- 
pagnaient du cceur et des yeux. II leur rendit comme 
une seconde visite quelque temps apres, laquelle ne 
fut pas moins obligeante que la premiere. Mais, 
pour ne pas user de redite, je dirai seulement qu elle 
fut plus familiere, e"tant venu cette fois, lui troisieme, 
et qu elle lui couta beaucoup plus & cause de la pluie 
et de 1 orage dont il fut surpris en chemin. Cepen- 
dant toute 1 eau qui tomba ne ralentit rien du feu de 
sa charite et de son zele pour le bien de nos pauvres 

1673-77] RELATION OF ifyjj 291 

affection to them. As a token of this regard, after 
dinner he gave a great feast to the entire village, in 
the largest of all the cabins, where he was good 
enough to remain more than two hours, in order to 
be present at all their ceremonies, although the heat 
was unbearable. On leaving the place, a little 
Savage, six or seven years of age, was presented to 
him that he might stand godfather to the child ; this 
he did, and named him Franfois Xavier, on account 
of his devotion to the great patron of our Mission. 

After giving us all these and still many other evi 
dences of his solid piety and cordial affection, he 
returned to Montreal with all his suite; while all 
our poor Savages, who accompanied him to the 
river, followed him with their hearts and with their 
eyes. He paid them a second visit some time after 
ward, which was no less kind than the previous one. 
But, to avoid repetition I shall merely say that it was 
a more familiar one; for he came, this time, with 
two other persons, and it cost him much more, 
owing to the rain and storm that overtook him on 
the road. Nevertheless, all the water that fell did 
not in any wise cool the fire of his charity, and of 
his zeal for the welfare of our poor Savages. 



For bibliographical particulars of the Relation of 
1673-74, see Vol. LVIII. 


The original MS. of Father Louis Ni colas sMtmoire 
pour un Missionaire qui ira aux 7 lies, written probably 
in June or July, 1673, rests in the archives of St. 
Mary s College, Montreal. This is its first publication. 


This letter of Claude Dablon to the provincial at 
Paris, Jean Pinette, was written at Quebec, October 
24, 1674. In its publication we follow the text in 
Douniol s Relations intdites, t. ii., pp. 3-15. 


These three records of the remarkable voyages by 
Father Marquette are published by us from the 
original MSS., now resting in the archives of St. 
Mary s College, Montreal. Doc. CXXXVI. is the 
account of the first voyage (1673), in Marquette s 
handwriting, with corrections by his superior, Da 
blon; Doc. CXXXVII. is Marquette s unfinished au 
tograph journal of his second expedition (1674-75), of 
which we also publish a facsimile ; Doc. CXXXVIII. 
is Dablon s account of this second expedition, with 
particulars of Marquette s death in 1675. These 
several documents have already, as described below, 


been published by Lenox, Douniol, Shea, and others. 
We have changed the order in which they are given 
by previous editors, by throwing Allouez s account 
of the voyage to the Illinois (1676) forward into its 
proper chronological sequence, and inserting between 
the reports of the first and second voyages of Mar- 
quette, as given by Dablon, Marquette s own journal 
of his second voyage ; this is in accordance with our 
purpose of preserving, so far as practicable, a strictly 
chronological arrangement. 

The bibliographic history of Marquette s voyages 
is a puzzle ; we present here a series of interesting 
data, as a contribution toward its solution. There 
are several manuscripts extant, which, in the main, 
duplicate one another ; they are mentioned in Har- 
risse s Notes, pp. 142 and 143. In presenting his 
narrative, we have, as above stated, had recourse to 
a MS. with Dablon s corrections, preserved in the 
archives of St. Mary s College, Montreal. That 
MS. lacks pp. 55-63, a lacuna which we have sup 
plied from the 1681 edition of Thevenot s Recueil, 
described below. St. Mary s also possesses the 
original autograph journal of Marquette s second 
expedition, covering the period from October 25, 
1674, to April 6, 1675 ; and the original map which 
he drew, presumably in the winter of 1673-74. 
These are also reproduced by us, directly from the 
originals, by photography. 

The Marquette narrative was first printed in an 
abridged form, probably from a manuscript which 
Dablon had sent to Paris. It comprises only 43 
pages of the following collection: " Recueil | de 
Voyages | de M r | Thevenot. | Dedie" av Roy. | [Cut] \ 


A Paris, | Chez Estienne Michallet | rue S. Jaques a 
1 Image S. Paul. | M. DC. LXXXI. | Avec Privilege 
du Roy." 

Thevenot s little volume is a composite; the Mar- 
quette portion has its own pagination, and is en 
titled: " Decouverte | de quelques Pays | et Nations 
| de | 1 Amerique j Septentrionale." There is a 
copy of this edition in the Lenox Library; also 
another, typographically agreeing with it in all 
other respects, but having the date " M. DC. 
LXXXII." Camus, in his Mdmoire (Paris, 1802), p. 
282, thus refers to another variation: " J ai vu de 
ce livre un exemplaire portant au frontispice la date 
de 1 68 1, chez Michallet. Sur cette indication e"toit 
collie une autre adresse, chez Thomas Moette, 1687." 
There is still a fourth variety, tabulated in the 
auction catalogue of the Sunderland or Blenheim 
Library, sold in 1883 (pt. v., item 12409). It is a 
copy with the 1682 date, having pasted over it this 
fresh imprint: Paris, I. Moette, 1689." Henry 
Stevens bid it in for 17. Thevenot s Recueil con 
tains a map of the Mississippi, engraved by Liebaux, 
which differs from, and is quite inferior to, Mar- 
quette s own chart, it is, in fact, of no practical 
value ; but we present both of them as a striking 
parallel. The "facsimile" of Marquette s genuine 
map, as reproduced by Shea and others, is not with 
out blunders, which will be detected upon compari 
son with the photographic facsimile given in the 
present volume of our series. On p. 268 of his 
Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, 
Shea gives the following " Comparative Table Of 
the Names on the Map published by Thevenot, as 
Marquette s, and on his Real Map: " 














Alliniwek and Illi 

































? Kanawha 

The following names are on Marquette alone: 






Anthoutanta (Le 





? Quapaw 




The following are on Thevenot alone: 
Kithigami, Minonk, Aganahali, Wabunghiharea, Taharea. 

It will be observed that on the real map the part of Michigan then 
unexplored, is dotted only, and that the Mississippi descends only to 
Akansea, the limit of his discovery. 

Obadiah Rich republished the Marquette portion 
of Thevenot s Recueil, in an edition of 125 copies. 
It was printed at Paris. Imprimerie de Maulde et 
Renou, . . . 1845. Rich made up a title-page, in 
antique form, as follows: "Voyage | et | D6cou- 
verte | de | quelques Pays et Nations | de | 1 Am<- 


rique Septentrionale | par | le P. Marquette et Sr. 
Joliet. | [Cut] | A Paris, Chez Estienne Michallet 
rue S. Jacques a 1 Image S. Paul. | M. DC. LXXXI. 
Avec privilege du Roy." 

A rather free and defective English version of 
Thevenot s text was printed in the " Continuation 
of the English translation of Hennepin s America 
(London, 1698), and of this rendering there are sev 
eral editions. A better English translation from 
the same source is given in part ii. of French s 
Historical Collections of Louisiana (Phila., 1850), pp. 
279, ff. ; and an abstract in the Historical Magazine 
(Aug., 1861), vol. v., pp. 237-239. 

Pieter vander Aa published a Dutch translation 
of Thevenot s abridgment, in his folio and octavo 
collections of voyages, as follows: (i) Folio edition 
De Aanmerkens-waardige Voyagien (Leyden, 1706- 
1727). Marquette is included among the pieces of 
vol. ii. of the miscellaneous narratives, and its sepa 
rate title begins thus : Ontdekking | Van | eenige | 
Landen en Volkeren, | In t Noorden-gedeelte (Van | 
America, | Door den Vader | Marquette, Soc. Jefu, 
en d H r . Joliet; | [etc.]." (2) Octavo edition 
Naaukeurige Versameting (Leyden, 1707). The special 
title-page of the Marquette portion is, practically, 
like that in the folio volume, and forms part of vol. 
28 of this octavo collection. 

The manuscripts at St. Mary s College were pub 
lished for the first time by Shea, in the following 
work: " Discovery and Exploration | of the | Missis 
sippi Valley : | with | the Original Narratives of Mar 
quette, | Allouez, Membre", Hennepin, and | Anastase 
Douay. | By | John Gilmary Shea. | With a facsimile 
of the newly-discovered Map of Marquette. | [Cut] \ 


Redfield, J Clinton Hall, New York. | 1852." The 
volume gives Marquette in an English translation, 
the French text being printed on pp. 231, ff. It 
had first been issued as part iv. of Benjamin F. 
French s Historical Collections of Louisiana; but the 
author s edition, as above, appeared simultaneously. 
They were both printed from the same stereotype 
plates ; the only difference being a series title-page 
for the former, in addition to the specific title of the 

Early in 1855, a small private edition of the Rtcit 
and Journal, from the Montreal MSS. but mate 
rially changed and generally modernized in orthog 
raphy, was printed for James Lenox, as follows: 
* Recit | des Voyages | et des Descouvertes | du | R. 
Pere Jacques Marquette | de la Compagnie de Jesus, 
en | 1 annee 1673 et aux fuivantes; | La Continuation 
de fes Voyages | Par le R. P. Claude Alloiiez, | et J 
Le Journal Autographe du | P. Marquette en 1674 
.& 1675. | Avec la Carte de fon Voyage trace"e de fa 
main. | [Cut] \ Imprime d apres le Manufcrit Origi 
nal | reftant au College S te Marie | a Montreal." 

Collation: Title, with " Imprimerie de Weed, Par 
sons & Cie. Albanie N. Y. 1855 on the verso, i 
leaf; " Avant-propos, " pp. (2); "Table," pp. (5); 
blank, p. (i); " Re"cit," pp. 1-144; " Journal," pp. 
145-169; endorsement on verso of p. 169; Lenox 
coat-of-arms, with verso blank, i leaf. Facsimiles 
of Marquette s map and a specimen of the " Journal." 

The Lenox Library s copy has been bound up with 
six other title-pages, all variations, being canceled 
proofs made in connection with the preparation of 
the book. There is, similarly, an extra Avant- 
propos," and also a canceled title for the " Journal." 


Claude Dablon s Relation of 1673-79, as published 
by Shea in his Cramoisy Series (Albany: J. Munsell, 
1860), includes Marquette s narrative. It is, how 
ever, a less acceptable text than the one we give. 
That edition is also minus the Journal, and the intro 
duction of the map is wholly arbitrary, as will be 
seen from Shea s letter to Lenox, in bibliography of 
our Doc. CXXXIX. 

This map and the "Voyages et Decouvertes " 
were again presented in the Mission du Canada. 
Relations incites de la Nouvelle-France (Paris : Charles 
Douniol, 1861), t. ii., pp. 239, ff. Martin introduced 
a page (p. 273) of Indian music which does not 
belong to the St. Mary s manuscript, but was taken 
from a manuscript conserved " chez les J6suites, a 
Paris." This we have relegated to Note 29, p. 311, 
of the present volume. 

In James A. Van Fleet s Old and New Mackinac, 
copious extracts are given from the Marquette narra 
tive. Van Fleet s work has passed through at least 
three editions 1870, 1874, and 1880. 

See also: Margry s Mtmoires et Documents, t. i. 
(Paris, 1876), pp. 259, ff. ; and Rochemonteix s 
J/suites, t. iii., pp. 9, 10, 20, 21. 


In publishing Dablon s Etat present des Missions (or 
Relation) for 1675, in this and the succeeding volume, 
we have recourse for the greater part thereof to 
Douniol s Relations intdites, t. ii., pp. 17-95. We 
omit therefrom, however, pp. 21-33, as being a 
duplication of our Doc. CXXXVIII. ; and substitute 
for it an extract from Dablon s MS. Relation of 
1 673 -79, mentioned below, which includes Allouez s 


work in the missions of St. Marc and St. Jacques in 
1674-75. We also substitute for most of pp. 59-64 
of Douniol another extract from the Dablon MS., as 
being a fuller description of Laval s visit to La Prai 
rie. The typographical methods of representing 
these changes are explained in the introductory half- 
title of this document. The MS. of 1673-79 was 
written by Vincent Bigot, a few minor corrections 
being made by Dablon ; words or letters deleted by 
the latter are, in our presentation, printed within 

Dablon s Relation of 1673-79 * s a composite, giving 
in sections the history of the New France missions 
for the years indicated. But some of the ground 
which it covers is given in better or more extended 
form in other manuscripts ; in such cases we have 
thought it best to print them, and omit the duplica 
tions of Dablon. In printing the remaining portions 
of Dablon, we have considered it expedient to dissect 
his Relation, as follows : Most of the report from Ste. 
Marie du Sault is substituted for the Douniol text in 
Vol. LVIII. The account of some " marvels " there 
wrought is a duplicate of the same chapter in Rela 
tion of 1672-73 (Vol. LVII.). Nouvel s journal of 
1676 is also duplicated from the Relation of 1676-77 
(Vol. LX.). The account of the St. Jacques and St. 
Marc missions appears in Relation of 1675 (VoL 
LIX.); Marquette s second voyage is related in the 
same volume. Allouez s voyage is told in Vol. LX., 
where also Cr^pieul s journal and Morain s letter are 
duplicated (Relation of 1676-77). Part of the report 
of the La Prairie and St. Frangois Xavier du Sault 
mission appears in Vol. LIX. ; the last two sections 
are omitted in our series, as lacking in historic 


value; for the same reason we omit most of the 
report from Lorette. The first section of this Lorette 
report is omitted, as being rendered unnecessary by 
the fuller account given by Bouvart in Doc. CXL. 
(Vol. LX.); and a few pages at the end of section 4 
are substituted for the Douniol text in Relation of 
1675 (Vol. LIX.). What remains of the Relation of 
^73 -79 constitutes a report for the last-named year, 
and as such will appear in Vol. LXI. 

The original MS. is preserved in the archives of 
St. Mary s College, at Montreal. It was the work of 
Vincent Bigot; but Dablon retouched it in places, 
and made some changes, in his own handwriting. 
This MS. was one of those which the last survivor 
of the New France Jesuits, Father Casot, placed in 
the custody of the nuns of the Hotel-Dieu, at Que 
bec, and which were returned to the order upon its 
reestablishment in Canada, in 1843.* The MS. con 
sists of 147 pp., small 4to. Unfortunately, a sheet 
of nine pages, pp. 1 10 - 1 18, is lacking. It comprises 
the first section of chap. vi. (minus the title), the 
entire second section, and a part of the third. Da 
blon wrote the following abridged title on the verso 
of the last " cahier: " Relation de 1679, abre*g6 
des pre ce dentes. " 

This manuscript was first edited for publication by 
Father Felix Martin for Shea s " Cramoisy series." 
According to the Lenox Library s catalogue of that 
series, it forms no. 12 ; but Mr. Lenox, who privately 
owned several copies, called it no. 14. The title of 
this printed edition follows: " Relation | de ce qui 
s est passe* | de plus Remarquable | aux Missions des 
Peres | de la Compagnie de Jesus | en la j Nouvelle 

* See Vol. XXVIII. of our series, pp. 305, 306. 


France | les anne"es 1673 a 1679 | Par le R. P. Claude 
Dablon Recteur | du College de Quebec & Supe- 
rieur | des Millions de la Compagnie de | Jesus 
en la Nouvelle France. | [Cut] \ A la Nouvelle 
York, | De la Preffe Cramoify de Jean-Marie Shea. | 
M. DCCC. LX. | Avec Permiffion." 

The above title is not, of course, a part of the 
manuscript, but was made up by either Martin or 
Shea, adopting the fixed form of the old Cramoisy 
annuals. The table of contents is likewise con 

Collation: Title, i leaf; " Epistre " to the Provin 
cial, Michel Fessard, pp. (6); " Table," pp. ix.-xiii. \ 
text, pp. i -290; colophon, with verso blank, i leaf. 
A facsimile of Marquette s map. The colophon 
reads: " Acheve" d imprimer a [sic] Albany, ce 22 
Julliet [sic], 1860, par J. Munfell." 

Something concerning the plan of publication may 
be gleaned from the following extract of a letter 
written by Shea to Lenox, and dated " New York 
12 Sept. 1860." Rewrites: 

I have delayed acknowledging the receipt of your note in hopes of 
being able to send the small paper copies. You will find them large 
however. I wished to make them of the size of your Relations of 
1655, 59, 76 and Marquette, but had to take a larger sheet and leave 
each to cut away as he chose. 

This Relation 1673 - 9 embraces some of the matter in the Marquette 
from a different manuscript, but does not contain Marquette s 
journal. The map is added merely because Father Martin had it, 
having himself drawn it on copper from the original map. It has a 
kind of antiquated air that is not amiss. 

It would thus appear that the " Tir6 a 100 exem- 
plaires," printed on the verso of the regular title- 
page, refers to the whole Shea edition. The fact 
that so many apparently large paper copies are in 
evidence seems to be now explained ; the small copies 


have simply been cut down to that size. The Lenox 
Library has two of the large copies one of them 
printed on ordinary book-paper, like that library s 
smaller one, and the other printed on fine writing- 
paper. On the verso of the latter s title-page, Shea 
wrote as follows: " Des 5 de ce formet No. 2 J. G. 
Shea." This copy has another peculiarity. It con 
tains everything noted in the above collation, and 
also another title-page with this imprint : Quebec, 
| A la Preffe Cramoify. | M. DCCC. LX. | Avec 
Permimon. | Le droit de traduction eft referve." 
The same introductory " Epistre " is repeated, but 
is called " Avant-propos. " On the verso of the Que 
bec title, instead of the usual statement of number 
of copies printed, this takes its place : Regiftre 
fuivant 1 Acte de la Legiflature Provinciale, en | Fan 
nie mil huit cent foixante par le R. P. F. Martin 
au | Bureau du Regiftrateur de la Province du 
Canada." Both the "Epistre" and " Avant-pro 
pos " are dated: "Montreal, 20 Julliet [sic], 1859," 
and have Father Martin s initials, " F. M." 


( Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages 

of English text.) 

1 (p. 27). These islets are in the St. Lawrence, a little west of 
the mouth of Betsiamites River, nearly 200 miles below Quebec. 
They were probably named for Noel Jeremie, sieur de la Montagne ; 
he was a native of Champagne, born in 1629, and married at Quebec 
(1659) Jeanne Peltier, by whom he had eleven children; the date of 
his death is not recorded, but was subsequent to 1686. The census 
of 1666 locates him at Quebec; that of 1668, at C6te de St. Ignace. 

In later years, Andr6 had charge of the mission at these Islands 
(vol. Ivii., note n). 

2 (p. 27). Chegoutimi: a variant of Chicoutimi, concerning which 
see vol. i., note 50. At the entrance of this river into the Saguenay 
was early established a French trading post, which afforded oppor 
tunity for the missionaries to gain access to many savages from 
the northern tribes. At Chicoutimi the Jesuits had a little chapel 
(apparently not built until after 1661), which was burned a few years 
later. About 1670, a new chapel was erected in its stead, by 
Frangois Hazeur, a wealthy merchant of Montreal. The Jesuit mis 
sion was maintained at Chicoutimi until 1782, when its last priest, La 
Brosse, died there. See historical sketch (probably by Ferland) of 
this mission in Missions du diocese du Quebec, April, 1866, pp. 

3 (p. 29). The earthquake of 1663 is fully described in vol. 
xlviii., pp. 41-57, 183-223. 

4 (p. 29). A river thus named because it served as a highway 
for the Papinachois tribe in going to Chicoutimi for trade. It is 
now known as Riviere des Terres Rompues ("river of broken 
lands "), or Shipshaw River. 

5 (p. 43). Martin says (Douniol ed., t. i., p. 332) that this river is 
named by Father Laure (missionary in the Saguenay region from 1720 
to 1 738), Mouchaouraganich. It cannot be satisfactorily identified. 

In the archives of the Depot de la Marine, at Paris, are three auto 
graph maps by Laure, dated 1731, 1732, and 1733, respectively. A 


facsimile of the last-named is given by Rochemonteix (Jdsuttes, t. 
iii., end of vol.); cf. his note on p. 433. 

6 (p. 51). The bay of Seven Islands, about 300 miles below 
Quebec, is a large, almost landlocked harbor, one of the best on the 
N. shore of the St. Lawrence. " It has always been a great resort of 
the Montagnais Indians, and is connected by a broad and deep valley 
with Lake St. John, 300 miles to the southwest, through which an 
Indian road formerly ran." Lovell s Gazetteer, 

Bellin s large map of the St. Lawrence (1761) contains two auxiliary 
charts of this bay: one drawn by [Pierre?] Deshayes in 1686; the 
other copied from an English map of 1 760. 

7 (p. 51). For sketch of Nicolas, see vol. xlviii., note 14. 

8 (p. 61). This was probably a son of Eustache Lambert (vol. 
xxxvi., note 34). See J. E. Roy s interesting account of Lambert 
and his family, in Seigneurie de Lauzon (LeVis, 1897), t. i., pp. 

9 (p. 65). "This letter may seem to some readers only a con 
tinual panegyric upon the missionaries of New France. But it 
should be observed that this document was not intended for publicity ; 
and that it was a confidential communication from a superior who, 
according to the dictates of his conscience, rendered to his higher 
superior an account of the religious who were under his direction. 
It should also be known that efforts had been made to traduce the 
apostolic men not only to the ministers of Louis XIV., but even 
to their own provincial, and to Father Ferrier, the king s confessor. 
Father Dablon, then, discharged one of the duties of his office in 
establishing the truth." Martin s note in Douniol ed., t. ii., p. 4. 

10 (p. 69). Reference is here made to the blueberry (vol. xvi., 
note 13). 

11 (p. 69). Antoine Silvy was born Oct. 16, 1638, at Aix-en-Pro- 
vence. At the age of twenty he entered the Jesuit novitiate, at Aix ; 
his studies were pursued there, and at Vienne, Dole, and Lyons, 
successively. He spent the customary term as instructor at Gre 
noble, Embrun, and Bourg-en-Bresse. In 1673 he came to Canada, 
and in the following year was sent to the Ottawa missions, where he 
spent four years during the last two, aiding Allouez in Wisconsin. 
In 1678, he was ordered toTadoussac, whence he went, a year later, 
to found a mission on the shores of Hudson Bay. In 1686, Iberville, 
son of Charles le Moyne (vol. xxvii., note 10), conducted an expe 
dition of Canadians against the English posts at Hudson Bay, most 
of which he captured; in this enterprise he was greatly aided by 
Silvy s information and advice. The priest remained there, combin 
ing with his missionary labors service as chaplain to the French 


garrison at Fort Ste. Anne; these duties he fulfilled until 1693, aided 
during the last year and a half by Dalmas (vol. Iviii., note 18). In 
that year Silvy returned to Quebec, where he spent the rest of his 
life ; he lived at the college of Quebec, acting for a time as teacher 
of mathematics, then for ten years as minister. He died there in 
1711 (probably Oct. 12). 

12 (p. 73). Acadia was at this time a field that had been aban 
doned by the Catholic religious orders since 1655, when the Capu 
chin mission was expelled (vol. xxx., note 22). 

13 (p. 75). It will be remembered that Massachusetts had passed 
an act (1647) expelling Jesuits from its territory (vol. xxxvi., note 
n). At the time of Pierron s visit to the English colonies, the 
governor of Maryland was Charles Calvert, son of Cecil, the second 
Lord Baltimore (vol. v., note n). The Jesuits in Maryland had been 
driven out in Clayborne s rebellion (1644-45); afterward returning 
to their post, their mission was again broken up in 1655. The few 
who remained after this dwelt in the English colonies only in con 
cealment or on sufferance ; and the triumph of Protestantism in 
England prevented the renewal of Catholic missions in the colonies. 

14 (p. 75). "The Asststancies are the grand divisions of the 
Society of Jesus. Each Assistancy has a representative at Rome 
who is called assistant. Five Assistancies are reckoned: the Assist 
ancy of Italy, and those of Portugal, Spain, France, and Germany. 
England forms a part of the Assistancy of Germany." Martin s 
note in Douniol ed., t. ii., p. 10. 

15 (p. 89). "The gulf of California was called by the Spaniards 
Mar de Cortes, or more commonly Mar Bermejo, from its resem 
blance in shape and color to the Red Sea. ... In ignorance of 
this fact, the French translated Bermejo by Vermeille, and English 
writers Vermillion. " " Theguaio, or commonly Tiguex, and some 
times apparently Tejas, and Quivira . . . [which] lay east of the 
country north of the river Gila, and are probably the present New 
Mexico and Texas, were first made known by the attempt of a 
Franciscan missionary [Fray Marc, in 1539] to reach the rich countries 
of the interior." Shea s notes, Disc, of Miss, Valley, p. 4. 

Winship, in his admirable monograph on Coronado s expedition 
(U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93), locates Quivira (following 
Bandelier) in N. E. Kansas, beyond Arkansas River, and more than 
100 miles N. E. of Great Bend; and the village of Tiguex at or near 
the present town of Bernalillo, N. Mex. (ut supra, pp. 391, 394-399)- 

The wording of this passage would indicate Joliet as the official 
leader of the expedition ; but the authorities doubtless regarded Mar- 
quette as a valuable assistant to the enterprise, on account of his 


knowledge of the Indian tongues and the savage character, as well 
as of the information regarding the great river which he had 
acquired while connected with the Ottawa missions. 

16 (p. 93). The name of La Conception appears also on Mar 
que tte s map, herewith presented; but he is apparently the only 
explorer or writer who thus named the Mississippi. Shea remarks, 
in a note upon this passage of our text {Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 8) : 
"The name of Immaculate Conception, which he gave to the mission 
among the Kaskaskias, was retained as long as that mission lasted, 
and is now the title of the church in the present town of Kaskaskia." 

17 (p. 99). Cf. Andre s account of these tides (vol. Ivi., pp. 137- 
139; vol. Ivii., pp. 301-305); see also vol. xxxviii., note 19. 

18 (p. 101). The description here given is insufficient for the 
identification of the plant. Various plants have been regarded as 
specifics for the bites of venomous serpents, especially Aristolochia 
serpent aria and Poly gala Senega; but their virtues have apparently 
been somewhat exaggerated. Regarding the plants above named, 
see Charlevoix s Plantes Amer. Sept., pp. 35, 36; hisfourn. Hist., 
p. 159; Rafinesque s Medical Flora, vol. i. , pp. 60-65, and ii., pp. 
63-65; and Pickering s Chron. Hist, of Plants, pp. 748, 768. 

19 (p. 103). W. J. Hoffman thus explains ( U. S. Bur. Ethnol. 
Rep., 1885-86, p. 155) the character of the cross erected by the 
savages: "Marquette was without doubt ignorant of the fact that 
the cross is the sacred post, and the symbol of the fourth degree of 
the Mide wiwin, as will be fully explained in connection with that 
grade of the society. [Marquette s conclusion] was a natural one, 
but this same symbol of the Mide Society had probably been erected 
and bedecked with barbaric emblems and weapons months before 
anything was known of him." 

The Mide wi win is the society of the Mide or Shamans, popu 
larly designated as the Grand Medicine Society; " it is found in 
many Algonkin tribes. Its ritual, and "the traditions of Indian 
genesis and cosmogony, . . . constitute what is to them a re 
ligion, even more powerful and impressive than the Christian 
religion is to the average civilized man." See Hoffman, ut supra, 
pp. 155, 256, and plate xv. (facing p. 240), in which are depicted the 
sacred posts above referred to. Cf . vol. xxx. , p. 23, where a 
similar society is mentioned by Ragueneau as existing among the 
Hurons ; and note i to same volume. 

20 (p. 107). Reference is here made to the Fox- Wisconsin portage 
(vol. Iviii., note 7). The name "Meskousing" is but one of 
numerous variants of "Wisconsin." 

21 (p. 109). "This was probably the cat fish of the Mississippi 


(Silurus Mississippiensis). They sometimes grow enormously large, 
and strike with great force any object that comes in their way." 
B. F. French s note, Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 17. 

22 (p. in). The "monster" was " probably an American tiger- 
cat, the pichou du sud of Kalm. They differ from those of Africa 
and South America, because they have no spots." The fish was 
"the polyodon spatula of Linn. It is now very rare, and but 
seldom found in the Mississippi. It is also called by the French /<? 
spatule " (French, ut supra, p. 18). 

23 (p. 115). "These villages are laid down on the map on the 
westerly side of the Mississippi, and the names of two are given, 
Peouarea and Moingwena, whence it is generally supposed that the 
river on which they lay, is that now called the Desmoines. The 
upper part of that river still bears the name Moingonan, while 
the latitude of the mouth seems to establish the identity. It must, 
however, be admitted that the latitude given at that day differs 
from ours generally from 30 to a degree, as we see in the case of 
the Wisconsin and the Ohio. This would throw Moingwena some 
what higher up." Shea, ut supra, p. 20. 

24 (p. 125). Nearly all the aboriginal tribes assumed for them 
selves names of similar meaning, in much the same boastful spirit 
as the Greeks applied the term "barbarian" to all peoples outside 
of Greece. 

25 (p. 127). Captives taken in war were generally treated as 
slaves, among all aboriginal nations. The transition from this 
method of securing slaves to that of raids upon weaker tribes was, 
of course, an easy one ; and not only the Illinois, but the Iroquois 
and other powerful nations, seem to have been habitual stealers and 
sellers of men. See Carr s Mounds of Miss. Valley, pp. 30 -33^ 
where are cited many references to early writers, regarding this 

A note in U. S. Cath. Hist. Mag. , vol. xi v. , p. 140, cites the find 
ing by the Jesuit Grelon (vol. xxx., note 26), in Chinese Tartary, of 
"a Huron woman whom he had known in America. She had been 
sold as a slave from tribe to tribe until she reached that place." 

26 (p. 129). The custom here described appears to have been prev 
alent among the Southern and Western tribes, and is mentioned by 
many travelers and writers, even down to comparatively recent times. 
See Membr6 s narrative in Shea s Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 151; 
La.&tau s Mceurs des Sauvages, t. i., pp. 52-53; Charlevoix syiwr^. 
Hist., p. 303; Long s Expedition, vol. i., p. 129; Parkman sZa Salle, 
p. 207 ; Carr s Mounds of Miss. Valley, p. 33 ; and Coues s Henry and 
Thompson Journals (N. Y., 1897), vol. i., pp. 53, 163-165. Char- 


levoix and Long, among others, suppose that the assumption of 
feminine garb and occupations by men proceeded from a superstition 
or a dream, or was the observance of some religious rite; some 
other writers assert that these men were set aside for infamous pur 
poses a statement apparently verified by much evidence, especially 
as this class of men were held in the utmost contempt, even among 
the savages. They were called by the French bardache (a word 
originally from Arabic bardaj, "slave"), or berdache; the English 
corruption of this word, "berdash " (a word used, in various forms, 
as early as 1548), is everywhere in use in the West and North, to 
designate the men referred to. 

Catlin (N. Amer. Inds., vol. ii., pp. 214, 215) describes the 
annual "dance to the Berdashe," as seen among the Indians whom 
he visited on the Upper Mississippi, and has a sketch (plate 296) 
illustrating it. He says of the "berdashe:" "For extraordinary 
privileges which he is known to possess, he is driven to the most 
servile and degrading duties, which he is not allowed to escape; 
and he being the only one of the tribe submitting to this disgraceful 
degradation, is looked upon as medicine and sacred, and a feast is 
given to him annually. . . . This is one of the most unaccount 
able and disgusting customs, that I have ever met in the Indian 
country, and so far as I have been able to learn, belongs only to 
the Sioux and Sacs and Foxes." 

27 (p. 131). In the MS. at St. Mary s College, which we follow, 
two leaves are here lacking a lacuna supplied from Thevenot s 
Recueil (see Bibliographical Data for this volume). 

The red stone of which the calumet was made has been, from an 
early period, obtained by the Indians from the celebrated "Pipe- 
stone Quarry, in Pipestone county, in the southwestern corner of 
Minnesota. This place was first described by George Catlin, who 
visited it in 1836; see his interesting account of the quarry and the 
surrounding region (with sketch of locality), in his N. Amer. Inds., 
vol. ii., pp. 160, 164-177, 201-206. The stone was named in honor 
of him, "catlinite;" it is a red quartzite, regarded by Winchell as 
the equivalent of the New York Potsdam sandstone. See the latter s 
account of the stone and quarry, in Minn. Geol. Survey Rep., 1877, 
pp. 97-109. 

28 (p. 135). This sentence is transposed by Martin (in the Douniol 
edition, and by a marginal correction on the original MS.) to take 
the place of Chacun. 

29 (p. 137). Martin, in Douniol edition (t. ii., p. 273), gives the 
entire chant (of which but one sentence is found in the Montreal 
MS.), with both words and musical notation. He gives as his 


authority "a manuscript preserved by the Jesuits, at Paris, in which 
appear the notation of the song in the calumet dance, and the begin 
ning of the seventh section." The song is as follows: 

Hl-u hn-nl, nt-nalu-u, m-iutu-ai, n-ni 

jfrf? JJ j-jjjj J J^=7g 

ft) f f f I d__*z^ it f J. 4 , rt r 
o-lo. Hl-uh** U, ni-uaba-nl, ol-u U-oi, 


bo-bo, ol-M b - nl, ni-M to ol, ol-oa 4i- (U. 

r rrc 

Ca-oua- ban-no- goe t-chU-ch co-goe ,jue j -co* 

J TT J 1 >i 3 J J J J-^=ll 

ba- oo-gue *t- chii-cb #cfca-go te be be he. 

^ i> i J< i u i 

Miocta-go mi a-^e pi- oi pi - oi bo 

Uod, mic-tui- de pi oj fitn be. 

Cf . illustrated description of calumet dance, as practiced among 
the Omaha Indians, given in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1881-82, 
pp. 276-282. 

30 (p. 137). This is the heading of section 7 given in the Lenox 
edition a made-up title, however, as the Thevenot text is not 
divided into sections, but continues throughout without a break. 
Martin made another heading, given in the Douniol edition (and 
also in his copy from the Thevenot text, with which he supplied the 
gap in the Montreal MS.), which reads as follows, in translation: 
4 Continuation of the voyage : various rarities encountered along the 
route ; of the Pekitanoui river, by which one can proceed to Cali 
fornia. Shea omits any section division at this point, and in his 
translation numbers the succeeding sections vii., viii., and ix., 

31 (p. 139). Here ends the lacuna supplied from the Thevenot 

Pekitanoui; the Missouri River. "The name here given by Mar- 
quette, [meaning] muddy water, prevailed till Marest s time 
(1712). A branch of Rock river is still called Pekatonica. The 
Recollects called the Missouri, the river of the Ozages." Shea s 
note in Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 38. 

32 (p. 139). French, ut supra, p. 38, thus identifies these plants 


and fruits: "Probably Cactus opuntia, several species of which 
grow in the western states ; Diospyros virginiana, or persimmon-tree ; 
Castanea pumila, or chincapin. 

33 (p. 141). Parkman says (La Salle, p. 59, note i): "The rock 
where these figures were painted is immediately above the city of 
Alton [111.]. The tradition of their existence remains, although they 
are entirely effaced by time. In 1867, when I passed the place, a 
part of the rock had been quarried away." But Amos Stoddard 
observes, in Sketches of Louisiana (Phila., 1812), p. 17: "What 
they [Joliet and Marquette] call Painted Monsters on the side of 
a high perpendicular rock, apparently inaccessible to man, between 
the Missouri and Illinois, and known to the moderns by the name 
of Piesa, still remain in a good state of preservation." Parkman 
mentions (ut supra) a map made for the intendant Duchesneau, 
soon after Marquette s voyage, "which is decorated with the 
portrait of one" of the monsters, " answering to Marquette s descrip 
tion, and probably copied from his drawing. 

34 (p. 143). This supposition of Marquette s has been confirmed 
by later explorations, which show that the headwaters of the Platte, 
tributary to the Missouri, closely approach those of the Colorado, 
which falls into the Gulf of California. 

35 (p. 145). Ouaboukigou (Ouabouskigou, on the maps of both 
Joliet and Marquette) : corrupted by the French into Ouabache, and 
Anglicized as Wabash. By early writers and map-makers the name 
was applied to both the present Wabash river and the Ohio below 
their junction; it was also called by the French Riviere de St. 
J6r6me. By 1746, we see on D Anville s map of that date "Ohohio, 
ou la Belle Riv.," applied to the entire course of the Ohio, and 
"Ouabache" to the Wabash, as now known; and Winsor cites 
(Mississippi Basin, p. 17) James Logan, of Pennsylvania, as making 
that discrimination as early as 1718. 

36 (p. 145). Chaouanons: the Algonkin name, meaning "people 
of the South, for the tribe now known as Shawnees (a corruption 
of the above word) ; also called Ontouagannha ; see vol. xlvii. , note 9. 
Shea, in his note (Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 41) on this passage of 
our text, argues that this tribe is that of the Eries after their disper 
sion by the Iroquois. Cf. observation on the Attiwendaronk in vol. 
xviii., note 19; also vol. viii., note 34, and vol. xxi., note n. 

37 (p. 149). "The missionary gives no name to this tribe or party, 
but from their dress and language, apparently of the Huron-Iroquois 
family, they may have been a Tuscarora party, and referred to the 
Spaniards of Florida with whom they traded in trinkets for skins. 
Shea s note in Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 44. 


Marquette had now reached the country of the warlike Chicachas 
[Chickasaws], whose territory extended several hundred miles along 
the banks of the Mississippi, and far to the eastward, where they 
carried on a traffic with tribes who traded with Europeans." 
French s note, ut supra, p. 43. 

38 (p. 151). The Mitchigameas were located about the mouth of 
the St. Francis River in Arkansas. As for the latitude given to this 
place by Marquette, it varies somewhat, as might reasonably be 
expected, from that of modern surveys. 

39 (p. 153). "It is probable that Akamsea was not far from the 
Indian village of Guachoya, where De Soto breathed his last, one 
hundred and thirty years before ; and Mitchigamea, the village of 
Aminoya, where Alvarado de Moscoso built his fleet of brigantines 
to return to Mexico " (1543). French s note, ut supra, p. 46. 

Later (1886), Shea locates Guachoya, following De 1 Isle s map of 
1707, at the mouth of the Red River; see his paper on "Ancient 
Florida," in Winsor s N. &= C. Hist., vol. ii., pp. 253, 294. 

40 (p. 157). Regarding the pottery manufactured by the tribes 
of this region, see Holmes s "Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi 
Valley," in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1882-83, pp. 360-436; it con 
tains numerous illustrations of specimens obtained from mounds and 
other sources in the Central States. See also Butler s "Prehistoric 
Pottery Middle Mississippi Valley," and Seever s "Prehistoric 
Remains in St. Francis Valley," both papers describing and illus 
trating the pottery collection in the museum of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin, in Proceedings of that Society for 1893, pp. 
70-78. Cf. Thomas Wilson s "Prehistoric Art," in U. S. Natl. 
Mus. Rep., 1896, pp. 475-480. It is probable that the earthen jars 
and vessels used by the Arkansas tribes at the time of Marquette s 
visit did not essentially differ, in form, process of manufacture, or 
use, from the specimens now on our museum shelves, obtained from 
mounds. Holmes says (ut supra, p. 371): "There can be no rea 
sonable doubt that the manufacture of this ware began many centu 
ries before the advent of the white race, but it is equally certain that 
the art was extensively practiced until quite recent times. The early 
explorers of Louisiana saw it in use, and the processes of manufac 
ture are described by Dumont and others." And Hoffman (U. S. 
Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93, p. 257) says: " Earthenware is no 
longer made by the Menomini, though some of the oldest women 
remember when pottery-making was engaged in." 

41 (p. 161). Reference is here made to the Illinois river; from its 
upper waters, the traveler obtained access to Lake Michigan by 
several portages. That between its northern fork (the Des Plaines 


River) and the Chicago River was, owing to the southward current 
along the west shore of Lake Michigan, the usual route on the 
outward voyage from Mackinac and other northern points. The 
Des Plaines might also be reached by a similar portage to the Calu 
met River, which falls into Lake Michigan at the present South 
Chicago. On early maps the Chicago and Calumet rivers are some 
times confounded with each other. On the return trip, the voyager 
could reach the great lake not only by these routes, but by a third 
via the Kankakee (the southern fork of the Illinois) and a portage 
(at the present South Bend, Ind.) to St. Joseph River, at the S. E. 
corner of Lake Michigan. This was often used when returning to 
Mackinac, as the lake current runs northward along the east shore. 
See Winsor s Mississippi Basin, pp. 24-26. 

The Chicago-Des Plaines route involved a " carry" of from four 
to nine miles, according to the season of the year ; in a rainy spring 
season, it might not be over a mile ; and during a freshet, a canoe 
might be paddled over the entire route, without any portage. A 
canal between these rivers was opened in 1848, which gave a strong 
impetus to Chicago s early growth; and the government drainage 
canal, now (December, 1899) nearing completion, follows the same 
route, from Chicago to Joliet, a distance of 36 miles southwest to the 
Des Plaines River a waterway 14 feet deep, and 100 feet wide, 
which will not only insure proper drainage to Chicago, but greatly 
facilitate her commerce. 

42 (p. 163). These villages of the partly nomadic Illinois savages 
were not situated at the places afterward known by their names. 
The Kaskaskia village is placed by Shea (Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 
74, note) " near Rockport " (by which he apparently means the so- 
called " Starved Rock," on which La Salle built Fort St. Louis) ; and 
Parkman locates it (La Salle, pp. 65, 156) " about seven miles below 
the site of the present town of Ottawa [111.]-" 

43 (p. 167). The portage by which Marquette crossed to Lake 
Michigan was that between Sturgeon Bay (in Door county, Wis.) 
and the lake. A ship-canal connecting these waters was opened July 
4, 1879; it is 7,400 feet long, and saves 150 miles of navigation 
between the city of Green Bay and lower Lake Michigan ports. 
It is now owned by the U. S. government. 

44 (p. 175). LaToupine (Taupine) was the surname of a noted 
French fur trader, Pierre Moreau (Pierre Pere Moreau, according to 
Suite Canad.-Frangais, t. v., p. 16); he was born in 1639, near 
Xaintes, France. In 1671, he was with St. Lusson at Sault Ste. 
Marie (vol. lv., pp. 105-115); and his name appears in the proces- 
verbal drawn up on that occasion (published in Margry s Dtcouv. 


Franfaz s, pp. 96-99, and Wis. Hist. Colls, vol. xi., pp. 26-29), as 
" a soldier in the garrison of the castle of Quebec." In 1677, he 
married at Quebec Marie Lemire, by whom he had thirteen children. 
La Toupine was one of Frontenac s adherents; it was charged that 
he, with other coureurs de bois, was shielded in illicit trading by the 
governor s influence. In 1681, he was living in the " upper town " of 
Quebec, where he died in August, 1727. 

45 (p. 195). For location of this place, see vol. 1., note 13. Cf. 
Shea s note, in Disc, of Miss. Valley, p. 59. 

46 (p. 201). This date is incorrect, as May 19 fell on Sunday in 
1675. Marquette s death occurred on Saturday; the date should 
therefore be May 18. A. E. JONES, S.J. 

A letter (dated Oct. 10, 1675) by the Jesuit Cholenec, published in 
Rochemonteix s Jesuites (t. iii., pp. 606-612), explicitly states that 
Marquette died " on Saturday, May 18, between eleven o clock and 
midnight. Cholenec adds that the donnes who accompanied the 
Father had come down to Quebec that summer ; that he had obtained 
from them full particulars of Marquette s last voyage ; and that the 
latter had occupied himself, while wintering at the Chicago portage, 
in writing memoirs of his voyages. 

47 (p. 221). We here insert letters by Allouez, giving an account 
of his work for the years 1674-75. The first letter is made in Dou- 
niol (t. ii., pp. 217-219) part of the Relation of 1673-74; but that 
text is modernized. We follow a text in Martin s handwriting 
(probably copied from a Roman MS.), appended to the Montreal 
MS. of the Relation of 1673-79. The second letter is taken from 
that Relation; it is erroneously placed with the other letter (ut 
supra), in Douniol. 

48 (p. 235). The account of Marquette s death here given, in 
Douniol, has already been presented by us in doc. cxxxviii., ante. 

49 (p. 253). Jean Baptiste Boucher, born at Soissons Feb. 6, 1641, 
became a Jesuit novice at Nancy, Oct. 2, 1663. He was an instructor 
at Dijon and Chalons during 1665-69; and then, for five years more, 
pursued his studies at Ensisheim and Pont-a-Mousson. In 1674, he 
came to Canada, where he was soon employed in the Tadoussac mis 
sion ; he remained there four years, aiding Crepieul, and then spent 
a winter with the savages at Lake St. John. In Rochemonteix s 
phrase (Jdsuites, t. iii., p. 427), " discouragement then seized him, 
and he returned to France " (1680). 

50 (p. 269). Pierre Cholenec was born in the diocese of Leon, June 
30, 1641; and entered the Jesuit novitiate at Paris, Sept. 8, 1659. 
He acted as instructor at Moulins and Eu from 1661 to 1670, except 
three years spent at La Fleche in the study of philosophy. Four 


years more he passed in the study of theology, at Paris ; and in 
August, 1674, he departed for Canada. He was long stationed at 
the Indian colony of St. Francis Xavier du Sault, where, in 1680, the 
noted Iroquois convert Catherine Tegakwita died. An account of 
her life was written by Cholenec, who was her confessor. He was, 
in later years, stationed at the Jesuit residence at Montreal, of which 
he was, in 1700, superior. 

51 (p. 285). The new infeendant, Talon s successor, was Jacques 
Duchesneau, chevalier, and sieur de la Doussiniere, who had held an 
important government position at Tours, France. He came to 
Canada in September, 1675. Almost from the first, Frontenac and 
Duchesneau were unfriendly to each other, a feeling which soon 
developed into positive hostility. Each made complaints of the 
other to the home government, which vainly tried to adjust their 
differences and secure harmony in their official relations. Finally, 
Louis XIV., losing patience, recalled both of them to France (May 
10, 1682). 

The seigniory of Sault St. Louis, mentioned in the text as given 
by Duchesneau, was granted to the Jesuits May 29, 1680 (vol. xii., 
note n); it adjoined that of La Prairie on the southwest. 

52 (p. 287). St. John the Baptist whose feast, as we have 
already seen, was annually celebrated by bonfires and other rejoic 
ings is regarded by Roman Catholic Canadians as the patron saint 
of their country.